Barbara J. Shaffer Department of Linguistics August 2005

Educational History:
Ph.D., August 2000, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Educational Linguistics
Dissertation: A Syntactic, Pragmatic Analysis of the Expression of Necessity and Possibility in American Sign Language


M.A., May 1990, Gallaudet University, Washington, D.C., Deaf Education

B.A., May 1987, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Communicative Disorders

Employment History:
Associate Professor: July 2006–present. Department of Linguistics, University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico

Assistant Professor: August 2000–2006. Department of Linguistics, University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico

Teaching Assistant: 1998–2000. Department of Linguistics, University of New Mexico

Signed Language Interpreter: 1994–2000. Freelance, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Teacher: August 1990–May 1995. New Mexico School for the Deaf, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Selected Journal Articles
Shaffer, B. (2004). Information ordering and speaker subjectivity: Modality in ASL. Cognitive Linguistics, 15:2, 175–195.

Shaffer, B. (2002). CAN'T: The negation of modal notions in ASL. Sign Language Studies, 3:1, 34–53.

Janzen, T., O'Dea, B., & Shaffer, B. (2001). The construal of events: Passives in American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies, 1:3, 281–311.

Chapters Appearing in Edited Volumes:
Shaffer, B. and Janzen T. (to appear). The expression of modality in a signed language. J.Nuyts and J.van der Auwera (eds.) The Oxford handbook of mood and modality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Janzen, T. and Shaffer, B (to appear). The Interpreter's Stance in Intersubjective Discourse. In Laurence Meurant, Aurelie Sinte, Mieke Van Herreweghe and Myriam Vermeerbergen (eds.). Sign Language research uses and practices: Crossing views on theoretical and applied sign language linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Shaffer, B. (to appear). Evolution of theory, evolution of role: How interpreting theory shapes interpreter role. In Christine Monikowski and Elizabeth Winston (eds.). Evolving Paradigms in Interpreting Education: Impact of Interpreting Research on Teaching Interpreting. Washington, D.C: Gallaudet University Press.

Shaffer, B. (2012). Reported Speech as an Evidentiality Strategy in American Sign Language. In Barbara Dancygier and Eve Sweetser (Eds.), Viewpoint and Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 139-155.

Carlson, M., Morford, J., Shaffer, B. And Wilcox, P. (2010). The Educational Linguistics of Bilingual Deaf Education. Volume 11. New York, Springer, 99-115.

Shaffer, B. (2008). BORING: It’s anything but. In Andrea Tyler (Ed.) Selected Papers from the 2003 Georgetown University Roundtable on Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Janzen, T. & Shaffer, B. (2008). Intersubjectivity in interpreted interactions. In Jordan Zlatev, Timothy Racine, Chris Sinha and Esa Iktonen (Eds.) The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Wilcox, S. & Shaffer, B. (2006). Modality in ASL. In William Frawley (Ed.): The Expression of Modality. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Shaffer, B. (2006). The acquisition of markers of modality among deaf children. In Marc Marschark, Brenda Schick, and Patricia Spencer (Eds.): Advances in the Sign Language Development of Deaf Children. Oxford University Press, 291–313.

Wilcox, S. & Shaffer, B. (2005). Towards a cognitive model of interpreting. In Terry Janzen (Ed.): Topics in Signed Language Interpreting: Theory and Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 27–50.

Janzen, T. & Shaffer, B. (2002). Gesture as the substrate in the process of ASL grammaticization. In Richard Meier, David Quinto–Pozos, and Kearsy Cormier (Eds.): Modality and Structure in Signed and Spoken Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 199–223.

Janzen T., Shaffer, B. & Wilcox, S. (1999). Signed language pragmatics. In: Jef Verschueren, Jan-Ola Östman, Jan Blommaert, and Chris Bulcaen (Eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics, Installment. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co., 1–20.

Other Writings:
Shaffer, B. (2002). A review of: The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages. Edited by Ceil Lucas. In The Journal of Applied Psycholinguistics Volume 23, no. 4, 665–669.

Shaffer, B. (2002). Synchronic and diachronic perspectives on negative modals in ASL. High Desert Linguistics Society Proceedings. #2, Dawn Nordquist and Catie Berkenfield (Eds.).

Shaffer, B. & Janzen, T. (2000). Gesture, lexical words, and grammar: Grammaticization processes in ASL. Berkeley Linguistics Society Proceedings # 26, 235–245.

Janzen, T, O'Dea, B. & Shaffer B. (2000). Passive constructions in ASL. Berkeley Linguistics Society Proceedings # 23, 434–445.

Works in Progress:
Shaffer, B. & Janzen, T. (in preparation). Contextualization or Expansion? Compensating for interpreter inadequacies. Manuscript.

Shaffer, B., Morford, J., Perniss, P., Pfau, R. & Holley, K. (in preparation). From ‘can’ to ‘can't’ in four languages: An investigation of the factors influencing paths of grammaticization. In Terry Janzen and Sherman Wilcox (Eds.) Cognitive Dimensions of Signed Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Invited or Refereed Abstracts and/or Presentations at Professional Meetings:
L. Leeson, T. Janzen and B. Shaffer. Understanding Pronoun Location Choice in Signed Language Discourse: Grammar, Semantics and Pragmatics. Invited Presentation Queens University, Belfast, Ireland, November 19, 2012. B. Shaffer, and T. Janzen. The Interpreter as Intersubjective Discourse Participant. Paper presented at the High Desert Linguistics Society Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 1-3, 2012.

T. Janzen, L. Leeson, B. Shaffer. Cognitive Motivations for Pronoun Location in ASL and ISL. Paper presented at the High Desert Linguistics Society Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 1-3, 2012.

T. Janzen, L. Leeson and B. Shaffer. Understanding Pronoun Location Choice in Signed Language Discourse: Grammar, Semantics and Pragmatics. Paper Presented at The Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada National Conference. Calgary, Alberta, July 16-21, 2012.

T. Janzen, L. Leeson and B. Shaffer. Motivations Underlying Pronoun Location in Two Signed Languages. Paper presented at the Language, Culture and Mind V conference. Lisbon, Portugal, June 27-29 2012.

B. Shaffer and T. Janzen. The Embodiment of Speaker Subjectivity in Modals and Evidentials in ASL. Paper presented at the 11th Conceptual Structures in Discourse and Language conference. Vancouver, Canada, May 17, 20, 2012.

B. Shaffer. Perspectives on Mental Health Interpreting. Seminar presented at the Manitoba Chapter of the Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada. August, 2011.

B. Shaffer. Perspectives on Mental Health Interpreting. Seminar presented at Trinity College, Dublin. Sponsored by the Fulbright Specialist Program, MediSigns, and Trinity College. Dublin, Ireland May 19, 2011.

B. Shaffer. Perspectives on Mental Health Interpreting. Seminar presented at Trinity College, Dublin. Sponsored by the Fulbright Specialist Program, MediSigns, and Trinity College. Dublin, Ireland June 1, 2011.

T. Janzen and B. Shaffer. Joint Attention and Distributed Space in the Construction of ASL Discourse. High Desert Linguistics Society Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 4-6, 2010.

B. Shaffer. Reported Speech as an Evidentiality Strategy in ASL. Poster presented at the Theoretical Issues in Signed Language Research Conference. West Lafayette, Indiana, September 30- October 2, 2010.

T. Janzen and B. Shaffer. Joint Attention and Shifting Spatial Reference Points in ASL. Poster presented at the Theoretical Issues in Signed Language Research Conference. West Lafayette, Indiana, September 30- October 2, 2010.

T. Janzen and B. Shaffer. Joint Attention and Shifting Spatial Reference Points in ASL, The 4th Conference of the International Society of Gesture Studies (ISGS), Frankfurt (Oder), Germany, July 26, 2010.

Intersubjectivity and Deafness Research. Invited Speaker. Canadian Association of Educators of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Vancouver, British Columbia October 23-25, 2008.

Contextualizations in K – 12 Interpreting: Implications for Interpreters & Educators. Invited Speaker. Canadian Association of Educators of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Vancouver, British Columbia October 23-25, 2008.

Rethinking Equivalence: Does the Target Message Ever Equal the Source Message? Panel Presentation. Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada, July 29- August 3, 2008.

Janzen, T. and Shaffer, B., Contextualization and interpreter involvement in ASL-English interpretation. Invited Presentation: Western Canadian Centre of Studies in Deafness, Calgary, Alberta. October 19-20, 2007.

Shaffer, B. Growing Pains: One community’s journey toward professional licensure. Invited Presentation: University of Manitoba. October 6, 2007.

Shaffer B. Theory of Mind and Topic Marking: What signers know and interpreters don’t. Invited presentation: Montana Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf Conference, August, 10, 2007.

Shaffer, B. and Janzen T., Identifying the agent in active and passive constructions in American Sign Language. Paper presented at the Visual and Iconic Language 2007 conference, Office of Naval Research through the Space and Naval Warfare, Systems Center, San Diego, August 2 – 3, 2007.

Shaffer, B. A Discourse analysis of evidentials in American Sign Language. Paper presented at the Tenth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, AGH University of Science and Technology. Krakow, Poland, July 15 – 20, 2007.

Janzen T. and Shaffer, B., The agentive presence in ASL passive constructions. Paper presented at the Tenth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, AGH University of Science and Technology. Krakow, Poland, July 15 – 20, 2007.

Janzen, T. and Shaffer, B. The agentive presence in ASL passive constructions, Paper presented at the Second international AFLiCo conference: Typology, Gesture, and Sign, Université Lille 3, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Lille, France, May 10 – 12, 2007.

Shaffer, B., Dickey, D. and Loughran, M. Utilizing signed language interpreters and court reporters. Invited presentation: New Mexico Court Reporters’ Annual Convention. Albuquerque, New Mexico. April 27-28, 2007.

Janzen, T. and Shaffer, B Contextualization as discourse strategy in interpretation: A Response to Expansion “Techniques”. Invited presentation: Winnipeg, Manitoba March 17, 2007

Shaffer, B. A Discourse analysis of evidentials in American Sign Language. Paper presented at the 2004 High Desert Linguistics Society Conference, Albuquerque, N.M. November 9-11, 2006.

Janzen T. & Shaffer, B. Intersubjectivity in Interpreted Interaction. Paper presented at the The Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada National Conference. Toronto, Ontario July 4-8, 2006.

Shaffer, B., Morford, J., Perniss, P., Pfau, R. & Holley, K. From ‘can’ to ‘can't’ in four languages: An investigation of the factors influencing paths of grammaticization. Paper presented at the 9th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Seoul, Korea, July 17–23, 2005.

Shaffer, B. & Janzen, T. The discourse basis for contextualizations in ASL/English interpretation. Paper presented at the 2004 High Desert Linguistics Society Conference, Albuquerque, N.M. November 6–8, 2004.

Shaffer, B. & Janzen, T. Contextualization in ASL–English interpretation: A question of grammar or discourse strategy. Paper presented at the 2004 Conceptual Structures, Discourse and Language Conference. Edmonton, Alberta, October 8–10, 2004.

Shaffer, B. Topic marking: What signers know and interpreters don’t. Paper presented at the 4th Biannual CASA convention. Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 2–4, 2004.

Shaffer B. & Schick, B. Theory of Mind and Reading: What teachers need to know. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Childhood Deafness. Sioux Falls, South Dakota, October 18–22, 2003.

Janzen, T. & Shaffer, B. Implicit versus explicit coding across two languages: Mismatches of cognitive domains during interpretation Paper presented at the 8th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. La Rioja, Spain, July 20–25, 2003.

Shaffer, B. BORING: A case study in semantic change. Paper presented at the 2003 International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. La Rioja, Spain, July 20–25, 2003.

Shaffer, B. BORING: It’s anything but. Invited presentation, Georgetown University Round Table on Linguistics. February 15–17, 2003.

Shaffer, B. The acquisition of markers of modality by deaf children. Invited presentation, The David Peikoff Chair of Deafness Studies Colloquium Series. University of Alberta. Alberta, Canada, October 24, 2002.

Shaffer B. Theory of mind and deaf children: What goldilocks knew but the three bears didn’t. Invited presentation, The University of Alberta David Peikoff Chair on Deafness Studies, in collaboration with the Alberta School for the Deaf and Connect Society. Alberta, Canada, October 25, 2002.

Shaffer B. The expression of modal notions in American Sign Language. Invited presentation, The University of Alberta David Peikoff Chair on Deafness Studies, in collaboration with the Alberta Chapter of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and Grant MacEwan College. Alberta, Canada, October 26, 2002.

Shaffer, B. & Janzen T. Topic marking: What signers know and interpreters don’t. Invited presentation, The Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada National Conference. Halifax, Nova Scotia. July 22–26, 2002.

Shaffer, B. The acquisition of markers of modality by deaf children. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Childhood Deafness. Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 29–October 2, 2001.

Shaffer, B. Stages of language development. Invited speaker, the statewide Early Intervention Training for Professionals Working with Young Deaf Children. September 2001.

Wilcox, S., Shaffer, B., Jarque, M.J., Segimon, J. M., Pizzuto, E. & Rossini, P. The emergence of grammar from word and gesture: A cross–linguistic study of modal verbs in three signed languages. Paper presented at the Seventh Theoretical Issues in Signed Language Research, Amsterdam. July 23-27, 2000.

Wilcox, S. & Shaffer, B. The cross–linguistic study of signed languages at the University of New Mexico. Paper presented at the Seventh Theoretical Issues in Signed Language Research, Amsterdam. July 23-27, 2000.

Janzen, T. & Shaffer, B. Gesture as the substrate in the process of ASL grammaticization. Paper presented at the Texas Linguistics Society Conference on the Effects of Modality on Language and Linguistic Theory, Austin, Texas. February 25-27, 2000.

Shaffer, B. & Janzen T. Gesture, lexical words, and grammar: Grammaticization processes in ASL. Paper presented at the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, California. February 2000.

Shaffer, B. The discourse basis for the interplay of syntax and pragmatics in the expression of necessity and possibility in ASL. Paper presented at the Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Stockholm, Sweden. July 1999.

Shaffer, B. Synchronic and diachronic perspectives on negative modals in ASL. Paper presented at the High Desert Linguistics Society, Albuquerque, New Mexico. March 26-28, 1999.

Shaffer B. The semantics of markers of modality in American Sign Language. Invited Speaker, Red River College, Deaf Literacy Project, Winnipeg. November 20, 1998.

Janzen, T., O'Dea, B. & Shaffer, B. Passive constructions in ASL. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, February 16, 1997.

Contributed (unrefereed) Abstracts and/or Oral Presentations at Professional Meetings:
Shaffer, B. Contextualization or expansion: Looking outward, looking inward. Invited workshop. Albuquerque Public Schools, Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 22, 2005.

Shaffer, B. Modality, context and interpreting. Invited presentation, New Mexico Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Albuquerque New Mexico, November 1, 2003.

Shaffer B. Mindreading: What goldilocks knew but the three bears didn’t. Paper presented at the statewide deaf education conference: New Mexico CASA, Albuquerque, New Mexico. April 2002.

Shaffer, B. Theory of Mind: Implications for education. Invited lecture: New Mexico School for the Deaf, Santa Fe New Mexico. September 2000.

Shaffer, B. & Corwin, D. K. Voice interpreting for the practitioner. Paper presented at the statewide deaf education conference: New Mexico CASA Two, Albuquerque, New Mexico. April 2000.

Shaffer, B. Theory of Mind: Basics for early intervention specialists. Paper presented at the statewide deaf education conference: New Mexico CASA Two, Albuquerque, New Mexico. April 2000.

Shaffer, B. & Wilcox, S. The status of American Sign Language in the public schools. Paper presented at the statewide deaf education conference: New Mexico CASA, Las Cruces New Mexico. April 1998.