Electronic Citations

Zimmerman Reference Department- University of New Mexico

Electronic citations are taken from electronic data bases, such as CD-ROMs and on-line resources, and the Internet. Standard formats that have been used for print materials, such as publisher, publication date and page number, are not entirely relevant for electronic sources.  On-line documents can be moved from one location to another and their contents can frequently be updated, so the date of the citation may actually be the date the material was accessed.
You can cite many forms of information found on-line. There is presently a style manual, Electronic Styles by Xia Li and Nancy B. Crane, call number Ref. PN 171 F56 L5 1996, which cites electronic information in both the American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA) styles. These samples below are a few of the most common examples from this source. It is located on the "Styles Manuals" table in the Reference Area. If you have any questions about an electronic citation, please ask for help at the Reference Desk.


APA Style

HTTP (World Wide Web) Entire work

Basic Form: Example

HTTP (World Wide Web) Journal article

Basic Form: Example:

CD-ROM and Commercial Online Databases, Entire work

Basic Form: Example:

CD-ROM and Commercial Online Databases, Journal article

Basic Form: Example:

Email

Basic Form: Example:

Gopher

Basic Form: Example:

Telnet

Basic Form: Example:

MLA Style

HTTP (World Wide Web) Entire work

Basic Form: Example:

HTTP (World Wide Web) Journal article

Basic form: Example:

CD-ROM Sources

Basic form: Example:

CD-ROM and Commercial Online Databases Journal article

Basic form: Example:

Email

Basic form: Example:

Gopher

Basic form: Example:

Telnet

Basic form: Example:

LIG-082 (5/13/97 Judi Pitch) Permission for use of this document, in whole or in part, is granted, provided credit is given to the author(s) and Zimmerman Library, University of New Mexico.