APA Reference Format
This is basic info on APA (American Psychological Association) citation format. The following examples are to help you use APA in your paper.
1. When citing a direct quote from an original source - book:
According to Hickson, Stacks, and Moore (2004), “We are not always aware of the nonverbal communication of others, and we are sometimes unaware of our own nonverbal communication” (p. 7).
“We are not always aware of the nonverbal communication of others, and we are sometimes unaware of our own nonverbal communication” (Hickson, Stacks, & Moore, 2004, p. 7).
2. Paraphrasing an original source - book:
To further investigate the meaning of nonverbal communication, it is necessary to understand the definitions of three closely related terms: verbal, oral, and vocal (Hickson, Stacks, & Moore, 2004).
How to Show #1-2 on a References Page:
Hickson, M., Stacks, D. W., & Moore, N. (2004). NVC: Nonverbal communication:
Studies and applications, (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.
3. Direct quote of original source - journal:
According to research by Burgoon, Manusov, Meneo, and Hale (1985), there are at least two types of “deviation from the expected conversational pattern in interview situations: (1) gaze aversion and (2) constant gaze” (p. 141).
There are at least two types of “deviation from the expected conversational pattern in interview situations: (1) gaze aversion and (2) constant gaze” (Burgoon, Manusov, Meneo, & Hale, 1985, p. 141).
How to Show #3 on a References Page:
Burgoon, J. K., Manusov, V., Mineo, P. & Hale, J. L. (1985). Effects of gaze on hiring,
credibility, attraction, and relational message interpretation. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 9, 133-146.
4. Paraphrase original source from lecture:
Nonverbal regulators include four types of turn-taking cues: turn-maintaining, turn- requesting, turn-yielding, and turn-denying (Dickinson, 2006).
How to Show #5 on a References Page:
Dickinson, E. A. (6/28/06). Lecture in C&J 323: Nonverbal Communication. University
of New Mexico. Albuquerque, NM.
NOTE: When citing in the paper, only use page numbers when providing a direct quote.
CREATING A RUNNING HEADER THROUGHOUT THE PAPER:
You can also insert the page number after these running headers, which looks nice.
CREATING HEADERS THROUGHOUT SECTIONS IN THE PAPER:
Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. (2001). APA: Washington, D.C.