The Aristotelian Triad (The Rhetorical Appeals)


Writers of text use various strategies to appeal to their audiences. The three means by which writers persuade their audience are pathos, ethos, and logos:


Ethos (Establishes the Author's Credibility): appeal of personality or character.


A writer uses the persuasive value of his or her character. (S)he creates the impression that (s)he is a person of sound sense, high moral character, and benevolence/good will.


Exhibit good sense:


High moral character:


Good will

Pathos (Emotional Appeals):


A writer can also use emotional appeals by addressing some of the following issues:

Logos (Logical Appeals): appeal to reason.



A writer also uses logical reasoning such as definition, deductive and inductive reasoning, evidence from other sources, expert testimony, etc. to appeal to the readers.