TAPHONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ANASAZI SKELETAL REMAINS FROM LARGO-GALLINA SITES IN NORTHWESTERN NEW MEXICO
Christy G. Turner II
Jacqueline A. Turner
Roger C. Green
In 1979 Mackey and Green used the condition of Anasazi skeletal remains from five Largo Gallina phase sites in northwestern New Mexico to aid in their argument that large masonry towers were primarily defensive structures. As part of an ongoing and long- term study of Southwestern violence and cannibalism, the skeletons from their five sites have been reexamined. Evidence for violence, in the form of perimortem bone damage, most often involving males, was present, but none of the sites meet the minimal c riteria test for proposing cannibalism.
EGALITARIANISM IN THE FACE OF HIERACHY
Research into egalitarianism and hierarchy continues to be important in understanding political and economic processes in all societies. These terms are relative, rather than absolute, categories and depend on cultural meanings as well as social action. The people of Sapwuahfik Atoll (Federated States of Micronesia) assert an ethos of egalitarianism while also valuing a traditional rank hierarchy adopted from neighboring Pohnpei Island. This paper describes how Sapwuahfik handles challenges to its egali tarian ethos and how public activities, especially feasts, maintain that ethos while acknowledging the legitimacy of the regional rank system. Sapwuahfik thus matches traditional polities with its powerful neighbor while protecting plausible egalitariani sm within the community. The cultural linking of rank symbolism with community identity and the public management of status claims combine to make issues of rank a contested and fruitful domain of ideology and social action.
SNOWBLIND IN THE DESERT SOUTHWEST: MOISTURE ISLANDS, UNGULATE ECOLOGY, ALTERNATIVE PREHISTORIC OVERWINTERING STRATEGIES
Alan J. Osborn
Archaeologists concerned with human adaptations in the American Southwest have generally assumed that plant resources dominated the diets of hunter-gatherers and cultivators throughout most of the prehistoric record. Such a perspective has probably arise n as a result of the "tyranny of the ethnographic record," the dominant role of "lowland archaeology, " and the lack of research that was guided by robust ecologically based theory. Optimal foraging theory, ungulate ecology, and animal and human physiol ogy and nutrition suggest that upland areas, or "moisture islands," played a very significant role in the long-term evolutionary development of Archaic and Anasazi-Hohokam-Mogollon populations of this region. Extant ecological knowledge of upland faunal populations, e.g., mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep, and of their overwintering strategies is essential for our overall understanding of prehistoric life in this region.
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