TOWARDS AN ARCHAEOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE: CLUES FROM A MODERN SYRIAN VILLAGE
Kathryn A. Kamp
Despite the fact that the built environment is extremely important for both expressing and structuring social interactions, archaeologists have not been very successful in formulating a theory of architectural interpretation. The ethnoarchaeological stud y of a modern Syrian village contributes eight principles of analysis to such a perspective: functional considerations; the interaction between local architectural standards and the properties of available building materials; the necessity of considering interior and exterior spaces as a whole, rather than privileging interior spaces; construction costs; flexibility in room types; the distinction between formal room type and actual room use; room remodeling, and the symbolic uses of the dwelling.
WHY IS A KIVA? NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF PREHISTORIC SOCIAL INTEGRATIVE ARCHITECTURE IN THE NORTHERN RIO GRANDE REGION OF NEW MEXICO
Building upon Watson Smith's (1952) well-known article that asks 'when is a kiva?' this paper utilizes both published and unpublished archaeological data from the northern Rio Grande region to investigate the roles played by socially integrative architect ure (kivas) between A.D. 750 and 1500. Traditionally, the dichotomy between pithouse and kiva has rested upon temporal and architectural criteria. Functional implications of structure use (i. e., domestic versus religious) have been determined based upo n the architectural pedigree assigned to the structure, thus creating a circular argument that ties function to the formal characteristics of Anasazi architecture. A contrasting cross-cultural approach to social integrative architecture is proposed that recognizes a continuum between "domestic" and "ritual" uses of architecture. This approach identifies the size of social groups utilizing integrative architecture as a primary factor affecting structure use and function, thereby avoiding many of the typo logical pitfalls that continue to cloud the pithouse-kiva debate.
INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE, SOCIAL STATUS, AND MAYA DIET AT PACBITUN, BELIZE
Christine D. White
Paul F. Healy
Henry P. Schwarcz
The reconstruction of diet using analysts of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of human bone collagen from the recently discovered Maya civic-ceremonial site of Pacbitun, Belize, provides some insight into the relationship between the role of intensive agricultural practice and site abandonment. Maize dependency appears to have changed in degree from the Early Classic (Tzul phase A.D. 250-550) to the Terminal Classic (Tzib phase A.D. 700900) periods. Maize consumption reaches its peak during the perio d of greatest wealth and prosperity (A.D. 250-700) but falls toward the end of the sequence when agricultural intensification and maximum population size coincide (A.D. 700-900). The Pacbitun data are compared to those from Lamanai and Copán to create a Picture of regional diversity and environmental distinction. Intrapopulational analysis also indicates that access to maize varied by age, sex, and social status.