THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF DIGGING TOOLS BY MONKEYS: A NONHUMAN PRIMATE MODEL OF A HOMINID SUBSISTENCE ACTIVITY
Gregory Charles Westergaard and Stephen J. Suomi
This research examined the production and use of digging tools by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebtis apella). We provided groups of subjects with sticks and containers that held peanuts buried in hard-packed earth. Nine of the ten subjects used their fingers to loosen earth and their hands to scoop away soil. Four of these subjects used sticks as digging tools, and three of them produced tools for this purpose. Similarities were noted between the digging behavior of capuchins and that of humans in modern hunter-gatherer societies. We hypothesize that Homo habilis could have produced digging tools analogous to those produced by monkeys in this investigation and that the use of such implements would have provided evolutionary advantages in harsh prehistoric environments.
UPPER PALEOLITHIC OCCUPATION LEVELS AND LATE-OCCURRING NEANDERTAL AT VINDIJA CAVE (CROATIA) IN THE CONTEXT OF CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE BALKANS
This paper presents the results obtained by analysis of Upper Paleolithic occupation levels in Vitidija Cave, northwestern Croatia. Typological analyses of stone and bone tools have been carried out. Vindija provides direct evidence on the transition from the Middle Paleolithic to the Upper Paleolithic, as well as on fossil hominids (probably Neandertals) associated with a 33,000-year-old Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian) industry. The Upper Paleolithic of this site starts with the Aurignacian and continues with the Gravettian industry, which is divided into several phases (Gravettian, Late Gravettian, and final Gravettian/Epigravettian). The topmost levels pertain to the Holocene. These industries at Vindija display both some similarities to, but also some differences from, concurrent industries found in Central European sites. There are notable differences between the Upper Paleolithic at Vindija and Paleolithic sites in the Adriatic-Mediterranean region.
RETHINKING "REDISTRIBUTION" IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD: OBSIDIAN EXCHANGE AT THE MARANA PLATFORM MOUND
James M. Bayman
Economic concepts of redistribution and reciprocity (e.g., Service 1962; Sahlins 1972; Earle 1977) often play important roles in models of exchange, even though prehistorians are poorly equipped to discriminate between these processes in the archaeological record. Spatial analyses and geochemical characterization (X-ray fluorescence) of obsidian from the Classic period (A.D. 1100-1300) Hohokam multi-site community of Marana in the American Southwest reveal patterns that do not match idealized archaeological expectations of redistribution. These data support an interpretation of restricted obsidian consumption at communal ceremonial gatherings that centered on the platform mound. However, households in the platform mound settlement (the largest site in the community) had roughly equivalent amounts of obsidian, whereas households in settlements away from the mound had highly limited access. This unexpected pattern indicates that normative models of exchange are inadequate for characterizing prehistoric economy in prestate societies like the Hohokam.
OTHER KNOWLEDGE AND OTHER WAYS OF KNOWING
GENDER, DISCORD, AND ILLNESS: NAVAJO PHILOSOPHY AND HEALING IN THE NATIVE AMERICAN CHURCH
Gilbert A. Quintero
Many studies of different societies throughout the world have noted how discord in prominent social relationships manifests itself as specific illnesses. This paper explores how the discord characteristic of male/female relations is related to illness in Navajo culture and how gender differences as conceptualized in Navajo cosmology are used to facilitate the healing of this discord. It will be shown that traditional Navajo philosophy recognizes discord between the sexes as a fundamental component of disease and that the reestablishment of health is accomplished through the manipulation of gendered symbolic media. In addition, a discussion of a relatively new healing tradition on the Navajo Reservation-the Native American Church-demonstrates that many of the basic cosmological principles underlying traditional Navajo ideas regarding gender are incorporated by practitioners of this healing system. This study has implications for healing, social transformation, and gender