GLIMPSES OF GENDER IN THE PREHISTORIC SOUTHWEST
Katherine A. Spielmann
Research on gender in the prehistoric Southwest, although in its infancy, has tackled several issues of interest to archaeologists who study middle-range societies worldwide. The articles in this volume focus on agricultural production, craft specialization, social hierarchies, and leadership. This article focuses in particular on agricultural production. Combining information from bone chemistry, osteological, and mealing bin analyses, a link is developed among high corn diets, women as corn processors, the context of corn processing and women's access to communal information. In particular, it is argued that women increased their processing of corn in public spaces as their access to ritual space decreased after around A.D. 1300. Gendered implications for trade in corn are also discussed.
SALADO CERAMIC BURIAL OFFERINGS: A CONSIDERATION OF GENDER AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
Arleyn W. Simon
Archaeologists have often interpreted ceramic vessel accompaniments in burials as indicators of personal wealth or the social status of the deceased. However, alternative interpretations that are related to the gender and age of the individual may better explain the patterns of vessel placement. Ceramic vessel accompaniments recovered during the Roosevelt Platform Mound Study are used to examine gender roles among the prehistoric Salado of central Arizona. Patterns of vessel placement within Salado burials, as identified by compositional groups, have implications for the roles of individuals within the larger context of social relationships that comprised the prehistoric community.
TRACKING ZUNI GENDER AND LEADERSHIP ROLES ACROSS THE CONTACT PERIOD
Todd L. Howell
Mortuary data from the ancestral Zuni village of Hawikku, which spans both the prehistoric and historic periods, are used to examine temporal changes in gender-specific leadership positions. A cross-cultural model linking changes in gender roles to contact with Spanish and Athapaskan groups is presented and tested with the Hawikku data. The contact model suggests that European influences often undermine traditional female authority; Spanish and Athapaskan intrusions should make warfare and village defense the primary responsibilities of male leaders. Arguments linking leadership to diversity in grave furnishings, body preparations, and grave construction are presented, and male and female leaders are identified. Temporal changes in gender-specific leadership roles support the contact model.
GENDER AND THE REORGANIZATION OF HISTORIC ZUNI CRAFT PRODUCTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
Barbara J. Mills
Over the past century, there has been a dramatic reorganization of craft Production at Zuni Pueblo, including a change from a gender-specific economic system to one in which gender is less of an organizational principle. Concurrently changes in learning contexts, resource acquisition, labor scheduling, production scale, product demand, and, ultimately, the finished products have occurred. The interrelationships among these variables are discussed, and the reorganization of production is placed within the context of broader changes in Zuni ecology and political economy. Archaeological implications drawn from the historic Zuni case study include: (1) the diversity of products and production scales that may co-occur within a gender-specific economic system; (2) the material correlates of changes in gendered systems of production; and (3) the interrelationships of changes in nonsubsistence and subsistence production.
THE ORIGINS OF SOUTHWESTERN CERAMIC CONTAINERS: WOMEN'S TIME ALLOCATION AND ECONOMIC INTENSIFICATION
Patricia L. Crown and W.H. Wills
In the Greater American Southwest, ceramic containers were not manufactured until A.D. 1, as much as fifteen hundred years after the appearance of the first cultigens and eight hundred years after the appearance of the first ceramic figurines. A mode for pottery origins developed by James A. Brown is tested using Southwestern data. Pottery containers were produced in conjunction with increasing sedentism and a greater dependence on cultivated foods. Production of ceramic containers increased women's workloads and created scheduling conflicts with subsistence pursuits. Southwestern women began producing pottery when changing social and economic conditions made the increased costs of ceramic manufacture acceptable. Changes in processing and storage technology involving the use of ceramic vessels increased the yields from cultivated crops.
BOOK REVIEWSYanomamo, 4th ed. Napoleon Chagnon. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1992, 248 pp. $15.75 (paper). Reviewed by Magdalena Hurtado, University of New Mexico.
Beyond the Natural Body: An Archaeology of Sex Hormones. Nelly Oudshoorn. London: Routledge, 1995, 195pp., $16.95 (paper). Reviewed by Susan Brandt Graham, Albuquerque, NM.