THE ANATOLIAN MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC: NEW RESEARCH AT KARAIN CAVE
Marcel Otte, Isin Yalcinkaya, Harun Taskiran, Janusz K. Kozowski,
The aims of this report are threefold: (1) to provide new information concerning the Lower and Middle Paleolithic of southern Turkey, (2) to present the shifts in lithic techniques evident in the sequence of Karain Cave during these periods, and (3) to demonstrate the significance of the new information for interpreting long-distance relations between Western Asia and Europe. In fact, in spite of the crucial geographic situation of Anatolia between the Near East and Europe, it has rarely been the subject of intensive excavations and publications concerning the Paleolithic periods. Recently obtained data are therefore of significant interest.
RITUAL AS AN INSTRUMENT OF POLITICAL RESISTANCE IN RURAL JAPAN
Ritual has been acknowledged as an important form of social practice, especially as it is employed by subordinated peoples to demonstrate their opposition toward a dominant ideology. So far, however, the recognized effects of such ritual activities have been limited to simple consciousness-raising. The following analysis assigns a more instrumental role to the performance of ritual itself. It adopts a historical perspective in examining how an innocuous drum ritual, which originally marked the beginning of a local Shint shrine festival, emerged as a medium of political resistance during Japan's modernization. More specifically, it interprets the ritual as an institutionalized opportunity for negotiating power relationships and redressing perceived social injustices. These assertions are supported by the symbolic structure of the ritual, continual efforts by the authorities to suppress its development, and several instances in which the ritual performance escalated into genuine acts of politically motivated violence.
THE STRUGGLE FOR FAMILY SUCCESSION AND INHERITANCE IN A RURAL KOREAN VILLAGE
Soo Ho Choi
Too often, anthropological works on the East Asian village contain misleading generalizations, formulated by applying structural rules, such as patrilineage, seniority, Confucian ethics, and patriarchal authority, to social and cultural processes, including family succession and inheritance (see Nakane 1967; Baker 1979; T. Kim 1964). The idea of the eldest son controlling family succession and inheritance is an archetype deduced from a convenient code of ethics, namely, the "Great Tradition". While this ethical code is noteworthy, it cannot fully explain the dynamics of specific social circumstances. This study, which includes two special cases, not only examines previous notions of the "Great Tradition" archetype but also explores the role of human agency in family succession and inheritance in a rural Korean village.
FAMILIAR PARTNERS? THE MOUNTAIN ARAPESH AND THE WESTERMARCK EFFECT
Paul B. Roscoe
In her work on the Mountain Arapesh of new Guinea, Margaret Mead reported a betrothal practice in which a small girl goes to live with a future husband and is raised with him like a sister. The case has since played an unusual role in the anthropological debate about incest, having been used both to support and refute Edward Westermarck's "childhood-socialization" hypothesis of incest avoidance. Drawing upon the published Mountain Arapesh record and upon unpublished materials that include Mead's fieldnotes and a significant portion of those of Reo Fortune, her husband and cofieldworker in Alitoa locality, this article reevaluates Mountain Arapesh betrothal, marriage, and sexuality. It finds that the data provide firm support for neither side in the dispute and concludes that it would be wise to remove the Mountain Arapesh case entirely from debate over the Westermarck effect.
TOO MANY MAYA, TOO FEW BUILDINGS: INVESTIGATING CONSTRUCTION POTENTIAL AT COPÁN, HONDURAS
David Webster and Jennifer Kirker
The monumental public architecture so characteristic of many ancient civilizations creates impressions of concentrated social power and high levels of labor appropriation. Nowhere is this more true than for the Classic Maya of ancient Mesoamerica. Despite the importance of monumental architecture in reconstructing many facets of ancient Maya society and culture, archaeologists have generally not applied empirical, quantitative assessments of construction costs. Using various strategies of labor recruitment, models of labor investment derived from quantitative studies of monument construction at Copán, Honduras, are used to calculate the potential architectural output of the Copán population between A.D. 400 and 900. Results suggest that monumental constructions at Copán required much less input of time and labor than qualitative impressions suggest.
WHAT'S IN A NAME? THE CONSEQUENCES OF VIOLATING BRAZILIAN EMIC COLOR-RACE CATEGORIES IN ESTIMATES OF SOCIAL WELL-BEING
Bryan Byrne and Marvin Harris
Josildeth Gomes Consorte
This is the second article reporting the results of an experiment designed to assess the consequences of overriding the Brazilian emic color-race classification system in studies of color-race relations. We have already demonstrated that use of the nonsalient term parda, rather than the salient term morena, to denote "mixed" color-race status causes the overenumeration of brancas (whites) and pretas (blacks). Some Brazilianists remain confident that the classification errors do not affect their statistical analyses of social well-being as long as the categories are dichotomized or trichotomized. Therefore, in this article we demonstrate that these nonsalient color-race terms and aggregate categories also cause erroneous observations about socioeconomic status. Brazilianists should reconsider the results of their previous work and concentrate their efforts on the search for a valid and reliable set of color-race categories.
BOOK REVIEWSRegional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis. Lane Anderson Beck (editor). New York: Plenum, 1995, 180pp., $45.00 (cloth). Reviewd by Christopher Carr, Arizona State University.
The Anatomy of Architecture. Suzanne Blier. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994, 334 pp., $17.95 (paper). Reviewed by Susan Kent, Old Dominion University.
El Abate Henri Breuil (1877-1961). Eduaro Ripoll Perello. Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 1995, 375 pp., figs., photos, (paper). Reviewed by Lawrence Guy Straus, University of New Mexico.
Cradles of Civilization-China: Ancient Culture, Modern Land. Robert E. Murowchick (gen. ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma press, 1994, 192 pp., 250 color and 40 black-and-white illustrations, 20 maps, chronological table, bibliography, index, $34.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Anne P. Underhill, Yale University.