THE CONCEPT OF KINSHIP ON YAP AND THE DISCUSSION OF THE CONCEPT OF KINSHIP
Thanks to the contribution of David M. Schneider, the society of the Yap Islands has played no minor part in anthropological discussions of kinship. I examine Schneider's writings on Yap kinship with respect to a general concept of kinship and the usefulness of marginal case material as argument, compare a central aspect of his writings with the ethnographic report of Müller, who did fieldwork on Yap in 1909-1910 (Müller 1917, 1918), and discuss Schneider's notion of Yap kinship in connection with Yap kin classification. In brief, Schneider's notion of Yap kinship seems questionable.
ZUNI FAMILY TIES AND HOUSEHOLD-GROUP VALUES: A REVISIONIST CULTURAL MODEL OF ZUNI SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
Linda K. Watts
An ethnolinguistically derived cultural model of the meanings and use of Zuni relational terminology provides a revisionist account of Zuni social organization based on the primacy and prototypicality of role structure categories within the Zuni household-group system. This revisionist model clarifies the nature of role positions within the Zuni household group and identifies three fundamental principles of social relations operating within the household group: relative seniority ranking, degree of social proximity, and ceremonial sponsorship. These three cultural principles, rather than geneological reckoning, govern the ongoing use of relational terminology as indexical of actual social relationships within the family, ceremonial system, and Pueblo community at large.
GETTING A RAISE: ORGANIZING WORKERS IN AN INDUSTRIALIZING HOSPITAL
E. Paul Durrenberger
We develop a practice perspective that integrates thought, context, and action to understand the work of a union representative as she tries to change, rather than reproduce, conditions for workers in an industrializing and downsizing hospital. By alternating our narratives, Suzan Erem, the union representative in the story, speaks for herself to present an inside view of motives, responses, and reactions, while Paul Durrenberger, an anthropologist, provides an outside observational and analytical perspective.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY, OR RELATIVISM AND JUSTICE FOR ALL
Merrilee H. Salmon
I argue that respect for other cultures and a commitment to studying them in the context of their own historical development need not prevent anthropologists from criticizing the morality of some practices of those cultures. Cultural relativism does not entail ethical relativism, and, moreover, a commitment to ethical relativism is inconsistent with the codes of ethics developed by various professional organizations of anthropologists. Two current public policy issues in which anthropologists have been involved, namely, protecting women from genital mutilation and preserving archaeological sites, reveal their commitment to ethical principles of justice that transcend individual cultures. An uncritical acceptance of the relativist view that there is no extracultural perspective from which one can make ethical judgments thus leads anthropologists into contradictions that interfere with their goal of promoting respect for others' beliefs, practices, values, and material culture.
ECOLOGY AND CERAMIC PRODUCTION IN AN ANDEAN COMMUNITY: A RECONSIDERATION OF THE EVIDENCE
Lidio M. Valdez
D.E. Arnold has argued that contemporary ceramic production in Quinua, Ayacucho, Peru, is "an adaptation to the marginal agricultural environment in which people began to maximize the use of nonagricultural resources." On the basis of the Quinua data, Arnold has stated that during the prehistoric Middle Horizon period, ceramic production in the Ayacucho Valley may have been due to the same factor since Quinua is located near the ancient city of Wari, an area with "sufficient quantity and diversity of ceramic resources" and thus ecologically favorable for pottery making. However, the existence of present-day pottery-making communities in areas of rich agricultural resources challenges Arnold's conclusions. Similarly, archaeological evidence from the Ayacucho Valley conflicts with Arnold's ecological characterization of ceramic production in Ayacucho.
BOOK REVIEWSExpanding Archaeology. James M. Skibo, William H. Walker, and Axel Nielsen (editors). Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1995, vii + 265 pp., $40.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Mike Adler, Southern Methodist University.
Navajo Multi-Household Social Unit: Archaeology on Black Mesa, Arizona. Thomas R. Rocek. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1995, xiv + 237 pp. $50.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Susan Kent, Old Dominion University.
The Fossil Trail. I. Tattersall. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, 276 pp. $ (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Les Derniers Chasseurs de Rennes du Monde Pyreneen: L'Abri Dufaure, Un Gisement Tardiglaciaire en Gascogne. Lawrence G. Straus. Paris: Societe Prehistoric Francaise, 1995, 287 pp., Fr. 290 (paper). Reviewed by Anta Montet-White, University of Kansas.
Le Trou Magrite Fouilles, 1991-1992: Resurrection d'un Site Classique en Wallonie. Marcel Otte and Lawrence G. Straus (editors). Liege: ERAUL, 1995, 246 pp., BF 1,800 (paper). Reviewed by Harold L. Dibble, University of Pennsylvania.
Transitions: Pleistocene to Holocene in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Jim Allen and James F. O'Connell (editors). 1995, Antiquity, vol. 69 (special number 265), pp. 649-862 + ix, $28.00 (institutional), $19.50 (individual). Reviewed by Richard A. Gould, Brown University.
The Batak: Peoples of Sumatra. Achim Sibeth. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991, 240 pp., 327 illustrations (180 color), $45.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Rita Smith Kipp, Kenyon College.
The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby (editors). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, xii + 666 pp. $55.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Steven Mithen, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
The Limits of Settlement Growth: A Theoretical Outline. Roland Fletcher. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxiv + 275 pp., $69.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Mark Williams, University of Georgia.
Word, Sound, Image: The Life of the Tamil Text. Saskia Kersenboom. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1995, xx + 259 pp., CD-ROM disk included, $45.95 (cloth), $19.95 (paper). Reviewed by Stephen A. Tyler, Rice University.
Weaving Identitites: Construction of Dress and Self in a Highland Guatemala Town. Carol Hendrickson. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995, xiv + 245 pp., 46 black-and-white photos, 6 figures, 3 maps, 2 tables, $35.00 (cloth), $15.95 (paper). Reviewed by Marilee Schmit Nason, The Albuquerque Museum.
Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World. Leslie Sponsel (editor). Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1995, viii + 312 pp., $50.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Richard Reed, Trinity University.
Bandelier: The Life and Adventures of Adolph Bandelier. Charles H. Lange and Carroll L. Riley. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996, vii + 263 pp., $34.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Douglas R. Givens, Saint Louis Community College - Meramec.
Le Paleolithique en Pologne. J. K. Kozlowski and S. K. Kozlowski. Grenoble: Jerome Millon, 1996, c. $28.00 (paper). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Paleoclimate and Evolution with Emphasis on Human Origins. E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, and L. H. Burckel (editors). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995, ix + 547 pp. $85.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Haitian Immigrants in Black America: A Sociological and Sociolinguistic Portrait. Flore Zephir. Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1996, xvi + 180 pp., $55.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Steven R. Nachman, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
African Rhythm: A Northern Ewe Perspective. Kofi Agawu. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xx + 217 pp., 19 black-and-white photographs, compact audio disc., $65.00 (cloth). Reviewed by John M. Chernoff, University of Pittsburgh.
Medical Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Method, rev. ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1996, 584 pp., $125 (cloth). A paperback edition is available from Praeger for $35.00. Reviewed by Philip K. Bock, University of New Mexico.