ofJAR Distinguished Lecture:
POST COLONIAL POLITICS AND DISCOURSES OF DEMOCRACY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL REFLECTION ON AFRICAN POLITICAL MODERNITIES
John L. Comaroff and Jean Comaroff
Beginning with a critical reflection on the export of democracy from Europe and America to Africa, this essay-which opens with the birth of the "new" South Africa - explores a question of increasing significance across the continent: What might "democracy" actually MEAN in postcolonial Africa? How does it engage with vernacular cultures of participatory politics and with the construction of new public spheres? We take, as an example, Botswana, widely regarded as a "model" democracy - but where, in the 1970s, there was some demand for a one-party system. This case compels us to rethink, fundamentally, our understanding of processes of democratization, sui generis.
LITHIC REDUCTION AND HOMINID BEHAVIOR IN THE MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC OF THE RHINELAND
Nicholas J. Conrad
Due to the increasing interest in studying the evolution of modern humans, much research over the last decade has been directed toward examining the organization of technology and its relationship to planning as it is documented in the archaeological reco rd. In this article, we use high-resolution archaeological data from the recent excavation at the Middle Paleolithic locality of Wallertheim, Germany, to gain insight into the technological systems of late premodern hominids. We focus on the problem of demonstrating contemporaneity and documenting different patterns of lithic reduction at the site. The episodic data from Wallertheim provide contextual evidence for the curation of stone tools and a level of planning that surpasses that often attributed to premodern hominids. Data of this kind should ultimately prove useful in reconstructing Middle Paleolithic systems of settlement and land use. This work seeks to study Middle Paleolithic hominids in their own right and to move beyond the dichotomies b etween modern and nonmodern hominids that have characterized much contemporary research.
IN PURSUIT OF GAME: THE MOUSTERIAN CAVE SITE OF GABASA I IN THE SPANISH PYRENEES
M. Fernanda Blasco
Four aspects of Gabasa 1 Cave make it a key site for understanding the subsistence dynamics of Neandertals and the environments in which they developed in the southwest of Europe: (1) the cave is at the edge of the Spanish Central Pyrenees, an area considered by some workers as a "barrier" and by others as a route of communication between the Iberian Peninsu la and the rest of Europe; (2) it is one of the very few deeply stratified Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites in this region; (3) the archaeological material is very rich in both artifacts and ecofacts, the lithic industry is clearly assigned to the Mousterian, and the faunal assemblage is large and well preserved; and (4) the site has been recently excavated following modern methods of data recovery. The object of this study is to attempt to distinguish between the animal bones that were accumulate d by foraging activities of the Neandertals in Gabasa 1 and those produced by nonhuman agencies. This goal is achieved by applying a number of taphonomic analyses.
EARLY PATAGONIAN HUNTER-GATHERERS: SUBSISTENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Luis Alberto Borrero
The process of the initial human exploration and colonization of Fuego-Patagonia was probably one of a slow filling in of empty spaces. The available information, coming mostly from caves and rockshelters, is sufficient to initiate a discussion on the su bsistence and technology of the early Patagonian hunter-gatherers. All the evidence points toward a generalized diet. Opportunistic use of Pleistocene mammals, together with a more systematic use of guanaco, is indicated. A redundant pattern of associa tion of artifacts with ground sloth, horse, and guanaco is evident. Lithic artifacts were routinely and expediently made on rocks available in the immediate vicinity, with an emphasis on the transport of bifacial artifacts and/or preforms, adequate for s ituations of high mobility. Local raw material was used predominately. Human populations were living at low densities, and space, as well as other resources, was probably abundant in relation to human needs. Density-independent adaptations are thus ind icated. Under these conditions, no major need for niche differentiation existed, and it is not necessary to postulate specialized use of parts of the ecosystem.
BOOK REVIEWSAnthropological Other or Burmese Brother? Melford Spiro. New Brunswick, N.J.:Transaction Publishers, 1991, xx + 250 pp., $39.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Peter Stromberg, University of Tulsa.
Making Gender: The Politics and Erotics of Culture. Sherry B. Ortner. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996, x + 257 pp., $25.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Mary H. Moran, Colgate University.
Sounds Like Life: Sound-Symbolic Grammar, Performance, and Cognition in Pastaza Quechua. Janis B. Nuckolls. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, xiv + 298 pp. $65.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Garland D. Bills, University of New Mexico.
The Southwest in the American Imagination: The Writings of Sylvester Baxter, 1881-1889. Curtis M. Hinsley and David R. Wilcox (editors). Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996, xxxix + 266 pp., $16.95 (paper), $40.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Leah Dilworth, Long Island University/Brooklyn Campus.
Indians and Indian Agents: The Origins of the Reservation System in California, 1849-52. George Harwood Phillips. Norman and London: Univsersity of Oklahoma Press, 1997, xvii + 238 pp., 12 illustrations, 10 maps, $27.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Les Field, University of New Mexico.
A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. John H. Hann. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996, xvi + 399 pp., 5 maps, glossary, $49.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Rochelle A. Mirrinan, Florida State University.
Human Evolution, Language and Mind: A Psychological and Archaeological Inquiry. W. Noble and I. Davidson. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1996, xiii + 272 pp., $64.95 (cloth), $22.95 (paper). Reviewed by Steven Mithen, Univ ersity of Reading, U.K.
Modelling the Early Human Mind. Paul Mellars and Kathleen Gibson (editors). Cambridge, Eng.: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 1996, ix + 229 pp., $50.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico's Oaxaca Valley. Joyce Marcus and Kent V. Flannery. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1996, 255 pp., 302 illustrations (16 color), $60.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Kenneth G. Hirth, Pennsylvania State University.
Aztec Imperial Strategies. Frances F. Berdan et al. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Publishing Service, 1996, vii + 392 pp., $60.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Barbara J. Price, 250 West 94th Street, New York, NY 10025
Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. Philip L. Kohl and Clare Fawcette (editors). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 329 pp., $22.95 (paper). Reviewed by Pavel Dolukhanov, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Domination and Resistance. D. Miller, M. Rowlands, and C. Tilley (editors). New York: Routledge, 1995, xx + 332 pp., $25.00 (paper). Reviewed by Mark S. Warner, Miami University of Ohio.
The Late Paleolithic Habitation of Haule V: From Excavation Report to the Reconstruction of Federmesser Settlement Patterns and Land-Use. P. Houtsma, E. Kramer, R. R. Newell, and J. L. Smith. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum and Company, 1996, xii + 312 pp., Dfl. $125.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Michael Jochim, University of California, Santa Barbara.
BOOK NOTE: Arqueologia en el Uruguay: 120 Anos Despues. M. Consens, J.M.L. Mazz, and M. Curbelo (editors). Montevideo: Banco Comerical, 1995, 484 pp. Reviewed by Jose Luis Lanata, University of Buenos Aires.