THE GENETICS, LANGUAGES, &
ARCHAEOLOGY OF EUROPE
BY L.L. CAVALLI-SFORZA
GENETIC AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN EUROPE
L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza
The modern genetics of Europe can be conveniently described by means of special statistical methods of analysis. A geographic analysis by principal components is particularly useful in detecting hidden genetic patterns determined by ancient population expansions. The five statistically most important patterns identified in Europe correspond with archaeologically, linguistically, or historiocally known demographic expansions. These expansions were most probably determined by known technological innovations (in order of importance, the first four are the development of agriculture and animal breeding in the Middle East, adaptations to northern conditions of the Ural region, pastoral nomadism linked with domestication of the horse in the steppe, and nautical developments favoring Mediterranean trade and colonizations). The remote origins of Europeans from neighboring populations and the replacement of Neandertals, the effect of geographic distance on genetic distance, the major isolates, and the nature and meaning of existing genetic boundaries are also briefly discussed.
The pattern of cultural differentiation, including linguistics, shows similarities with the genetic one, because the mechanisms of transmission are at least in part similar. However, recent changes in the patterns of communication and cultural transmission are causing profound changes which tend to destroy this similarity. The linguistic picture of Europe, its relations with genetics and history, and in general with cultural diversity are summarized. Apart from it, European cultural diversity is unfortunately not well studied, although it is clear to living observers. There is considerable historical knowledge, including the pattern of cummunication routes through the centuries, which is of major help for the study of cultural transmission and evolution. But the very rapid pace of cultural change in modern Europe implies that much knowledge, currently entrusted to the memory of living people, will soon disappear. The need to collect this information and make it available for present and future study seems a highly desirable scope for research in European countries. Apart from China, which has had a very different history, Europe is unique in the depth and extension of diachronic knowledge available, and useful, for the study of cultural and genetic coevolution.
DOES THE SOCIOCENTRIC SELF EXIST? REFLECTIONS ON MARKUS AND KITAYAMA'S "CULTURE AND THE SELF"
This paper argues that there are a number of logical errors, methodological flaws, and ethnographic misconceptions in Markus and Kitayama's famous claim (1991) that non-Western sociocentric and interdependent selves are the polar opposites of Western egoistic independent selves. In fact, completely opposite conclusions about the nature of Eastern and Western selves (or self-representations) can be drawn from the data Markus and Kitayama have themselves provided. Perhaps, then, the differing actions, beliefs, and motivations of individuals in the East and the West can best understood not as due to a mysterious "self" but as reasonable and predictable human responses to divergent patterns of power and constraint. The paper concludes with a short consideration of two classical Japanese literary texts to illustrate the case that interdependence is not a satisfactory description of the Eastern experience of the self.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION AMONG THE IBIBIO OF NIGERIA
Daniel A. Offiong
Relying on knowledge from active personal involvement in community matters between 1977 and 1993, the author, an Ibibio community leader, describes and analyzes conflict resolution among the Ibibio. The article argues that belief in ancestor spirits, the political importance of the elders and their crucial role as the intermediaries between the ancestors and the living, and the Ibibio belief in the supernatural powers of mbiam (oath) promote conflict resolution and social control in general. Comparison of conflict resolution in official courts and in the elders council reveals that the latter has advantages over the former because it is holistic. The article also shows that the informal court system in Ibibio is similar to those in other parts of Africa and demonstrates that modernity and tradition are not necessarily polar opposites.
"VOODOO SCIENCE" AND COMMON SENSE: WAYS OF KNOWING OLD-GROWTH FORESTS
Theresa (Terre) Satterfield
This article explores loggers' and environmentalists' conflicts over old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest by analyzing the alternative meanings behind invocations of "science." The appropriation of science by environmental activists ensures that not all debates about public understanding of science are lay versus expert ones. Understanding, instead, involves clashes between lay groups, each of which has ambivalent relationships to expert knowledge. Public knowledge thus involves a triangular model of social process where understanding is negotiated dialectically among lay groups in repsonse to expert knowledge. Competing ties to identity are central to this process and can be analyzed as opportunities for social critique. Broadly stated, grassroots timber advocates invoke their "commonsense" observations to champion their roles as farmers of the forest, while environmentalists invoke a conception of the forest as a complex system to promote a protective rather than productive approach.
BOOK REVIEWSEl Nahuatl de Tehuacan-Zongolica. Andres Hasler Hangert. Tlalpan, Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiories en Antropologia Social, 1996, 180 pp., maps. No price given. Reviewed by Jeffrey Heath, University of Michigan.
Indians into Mexicans: History and Identity in a Mexican Town. David Frye. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996, 250 pp., 13 black-and-white photos, 5 maps. $40.00 (cloth), $19.95 (paper). Reviewed by Judith Friedlander, New School for Social Research.
Boo! Culture, Experience and the Startle Reflex. Ronald C. Simmons. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 272 pp., $45.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Philip K. Bock, University of New Mexico.
The Navajo and Photography: A Critical History of the Representation of an American People. James C. Faris. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996, xv + 392 pp., $39.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Marian Rodee, Maxwell Museum of Anthro pology, University of New Mexico.
Work as Art: Idaho Logging as an Aesthetic Moment. Charlene James-Duguid. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Press, 1996, ix + 148 pp., 16 photos, $29.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Theresa A. Satterfield, Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon.
In Place: Spatial and Social Order in a Faeroe Islands Community. Dennis Gaffin. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, 1996, xii + 244 pp., $10.95 (paper). Reviewed by David R. Margolin, University of New Mexico.
Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. Andrew Dalby. London: Routledge, 1996, xv + 320 pp., $19.95 (paper). Reviewed by Warren S. Smith, University of New Mexico.
Contesting Culture. Gerd Baumann. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 215 pp., $54.95 (cloth), $19.95 (paper). Reviewed by Philip K. Bock, University of New Mexico.
The Matachines Dance: Ritual Symbolism and Interethnic Relations in the Upper Rio Grande Valley. Sylvia Rodriguez. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996, 240 pp., 36 color plates, 11 halftones, 4 maps, $45.00 (cloth), $25.00 (pa per). Reviewed by Jill D. Sweet, Skidmore College.
Mexico's Sierra Tarahumara: A Photohistory of the People of the Edge. W. Dirk Raat and George R. Janacek. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996, 228 pp., 111 black-and-white photographs, 6 maps, $49.95 (cloth). Reviewed by John G. Kenn edy, University of California, Los Angeles.
The Mill Iron Site. George G. Frison, ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996, xii + 248 pp., 35 halftones, 114 illustrations, 7 maps, $80.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Kenneth B. Tankersley, Kent State University.
The Spiro Ceremonial Center: The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, vols. 1 and 2. James A. Brown. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Memoires of the Museum of Anthropology, no. 29, 1996 xxiii (vol. 1) and vi ii (vol. 2) + 752 pp., $65.00 (paper). Reviewed by J. Daniel Rogers, National Museum of Natural History.
Plains Indians, A.D. 500-1500: The Archaeological Past of Historic Groups. Karl H. Schlesier, ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994, xxvii + 479 pp., $42.95 (cloth), $21.95 (paper). Reviewed by Laurie Milne, Medicine Hat College, A lberta, Canada.
Beyond Subsistence: Plains Archaeology and the Postprocessual Critique. Philip Duke and Michael C. Wilson, eds. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995, ix + 304 pp., $29.95 (paper). Reviewed by Laurie Milne, Medicine Hat College, Alb erta, Canada.
Culture Change and the New Technology: An Archaeology of the Early American Industrial Era. Paul A. Shackel. New York: Plenum Publishing, 1996, xix + 217 pp., $37.50 (cloth). Reviewed by Parker B. Potter, Jr., Franklin Pierce Law Center, Co ncord, New Hampshire.
Interpreting Southwestern Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns. Paul R. Fish and J. Jefferson Reid, eds. Tempe: Arizona State University Anthropological Research Papers, 1996, ix + 320 pp., 61 figs., 20 tables, $35.00 ( paper). Reviewed by Shirley Powell, Dolores, Colorado.
Understanding Complexity in the Prehistoric Southwest. George J. Gumerman and Murray Gell-Mann, eds. Santa Fe Institute, Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Proceedings Volume 16. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1994, xii + 368 pp., $34.38 (paper). Reviewed by Patricia Gilman, University of Oklahoma.
Askut in Nubia: The Economics and Ideology of Egyptian Imperialism in the Second Millenium B. C. Stuart T. Smith. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996, xviii + 242 pp., $110.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Josef W. Wegner, University of Penns ylvania.
Hunters between East and West: The Paleolithic of Moravia. Jiri Svoboda, Vojen Lozek, and Emanuel Vlcekv. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1996, xiv + 307 pp., $49.50 (cloth). Reviewed by Ted Goebel, Southern Oregon University.
From Tool Use to Site Function: Use-wear Analysis in Some Final Upper Paleolithic Sites in the Basque Country. Juan Jose Ibanez Estevez and Jesus Emilio Gonzalez Urquijo. British Archaeological Reports S-658. Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1996, 201 pp., 31.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
An Ethnography of the Neolithic: Early Prehistoric Societies in Southern Scandinavia. Christopher Tilley. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, xix + 363 pp., $79.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Peter Bogucki, Princeton University.
Islands in Time: Island Sociogeography and Mediterranean Prehistory. Mark Patton. London and New York: Routledge, 1996, x + 213 pp., 41 figures, 11 tables, $69.95 (cloth). Reviewed by John F. Cherry, University of Michigan.
Centre and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology. T. C. Champion, ed. New York: Routledge, 1996, xxi + 240 pp., $22.95 (paper). Reviewed by Neil Brodie, The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, England.
War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Lawrence H. Keeley. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, xiv + 245 pp., $25.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Paths of Fire: An Anthropologist's Inquiry into Western Technology. Robert McC. Adams. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996, xvi + 332 pp., tables, $29.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Landscapes of Settlement: Prehistory to the Present. Brian K. Roberts. New York: Routledge, 1996, x + 181 pp., 55 figs., 9 plates, $69.96 (cloth), $24.95 (paper). Reviewed by T.J. Ferguson, Heritage Resources Management Consultants, Tucson , Arizona.
Archaeological Ethics. Karen D. Vitelli, ed. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Altamira Press, 1996, 272 pp., $40.00 (cloth), $18.95 (paper). Reviewed by Merrilee H. Salmon, University of Pittsburgh.
BOOK NOTES Dictionary of Prehistoric Archaeology/Prahistorishes Worterbuch. Linda R. Owen. Tubingen: Archaeologica Venatoria 14 (Mo Vince Verlag), 1996, 472 pp., (cloth). Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.
Look, Listen, Read. Claude Levi-Strauss (trans. by Brian C.J. Singer). New York: Basic Books, 1997 (fortcoming), 208 pp., $25.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Philip K. Bock, University of New Mexico.