JOURNAL ofJAR Distinguished Lecture:
IDENTITIES: THE HIDDEN LIFE OF CLASS
Sherry B. Ortner
In this article I question the basically classless notion of identities operating in contemporary politics, both out in the world and within contemporary social and cultural analysis. Instead I try to bring to light several aspects of what I call "the hidden life of class" in the United States.
CHILDREN OF THE DANCING GROUND, CHILDREN OF THE HOUSE: COSTS AND BENEFITS OF MARRIAGE RULES (SOUTH TURKANA, KENYA)
The arid land occupied by the South Turkana in northwestern Kenya is characterized by relatively well distributed water resources, complex vegetation communities, and low-density patches of forage which vary with low predictability in time and space. The people's coping strategies include a high dependence on livestock, use of multiple pathways of food energy transfer from plants through livestock to people, and extreme nomadism both to provide herds with necessary resources and to protect them from environmental hazards. Traditional marriage practices benefit wealthy herd owners, elder sons, and formally married women and contribute to the resilience and persistence of the South Turkana pastoral production system as a whole. However, these practices disadvantage other classes of Turkana society, particularly women unable to complete the marriage process and nonmarital children. This analysis contributes to an understanding of marriage in general, demonstrates the value of long-term multidisciplinary studies, and has broad implications for development planning.
GENDER AND AUTHORITY AMONG THE YOKOCH, MONO, AND MIWOK OF CENTRAL CALIFORNIA
Linda E. Dick-Bissonnette
Decision-making, residence patterns, and specializations among the Foothill Yokoch (Yokuts), (Western) Mono, and (Southern Sierra Nevada) Miwok indicate that the previously reported male bias of these groups was partly due to researchers' assumptions and partly a contact-induced response. Comparing data from these groups with hunting and warfare hypotheses confirms that their traditional gender-egalitarian ethos and social ranking were based on age, knowledge, talent, and family ties. A diachronic approach and synthesis of new and old ethnographic material, archaeological studies, and historical data with descendants' statements shed light on the roles of women and men and on the basis of authority in some societies.
TWENTY-SEVEN: A CASE STUDY IN EJIDO PRIVATIZATION IN MEXICO
Changes in 1992 to Article 27 of Mexico's Constitution permitted the privatization of former collectively owned lands (ejidos). In 1996 governmental officials arrived in Tecoripa, a small livestock ejido village in Sonora, to assist ejidatarios (ejido members) in deciding whether to privatize. The ejidatarios struggled with two problems simultaneously: whether to privatize and whether to increase the size of their individual parcels from ten to twenty-seven hectares, thereby decreasing the amount of communally owned lands.
A key motive force in the ejido's decision has been the ejidatarios' desire to increase individual cattle production. This would be accomplished by clearing the native forest and creating an artificial grassland by planting buffelgrass, an African exotic. Ejidatarios believe that by privatizing, expanding their individual holdings, and creating grassland, they will become more prosperous. In Tecoripa they have sought the twin goals of privatizing and expanding their parcels. Their confidence in gaining increased wealth through expanded cattle production is based on inadequate information, however. Ecological variables and economic forces pose grave threats to the long-term viability of their private initiative.
BOOK REVIEWSSocial Learning in Animals: The Roots of Culture. Cecilia M. Heyes and Bennett G. Galef, Jr., eds. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996, 411 pp., $54.95 (cloth). Reviewed by W. C. McGrew, Miami University (Ohio).
Disorderly Discourse: Narrative, Conflict, and Inequality. Charles L. Briggs, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 248 pp., $49.95 (cloth), $24.95 (paper). Reviewed by David W. Dinwoodie, University of New Mexico.
Vintages and Traditions: An Ethnohistory of Southwest France Wine Cooperatives. Robert C. Ulin. Washington, D. C., and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996, xi + 300 pp., 1 map, 16 black-and-white photos, $56.00 (cloth), $19.95 (pa per). Reviewed by Bernadette Bucher, Fordham University.
In Pursuit of History: Fieldwork in Africa. Carolyn Keyes Adenaike and Jan Vansina, eds. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heineman, 1996, 200 pp., $60.00 (cloth), $26.95 (paper). Reviewed by Caroline Bledsoe, Northwestern University.
Case Studies in Human Ecology. Daniel G. Bates and Susan H. Lees, eds. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1996, xi + 407 pp., $69.00 (cloth), $34.95 (paper). Reviewed by Karl H. Schwerin, University of New Mexico.
High Art Down Homa: An Economic Ethnography of a Local Art Market. Stuart Plattner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996, 250 pp., $29.95 (cloth), $16.00 (paper). Reviewed by Alexander Alland, Jr., Columbia University.
People of the Peyote: Huichol Indian History, Religion, and Survival. Stacy B. Schaefer and Peter T. Furst, eds. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996, xiv + 608 pp., 123 halftones, 1 map, $59.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Paul Liff man, University of Chicago.
The Many Hands of My Relations: French and Indians on the Lower Missouri. Tanis C. Thorne. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 1996, xii + 294 pp., 30 illustrations, $39.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Patricia Galloway, Mississippi Dep artment of Archives and History.
The Northern Nadars of Tamil Nadu: An Indian Caste in the Process of Change. Dennis Templeman. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996, xi + 284 pp., $24.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Stephen A. Tyler, Rice University.
Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology. Elizabeth J. Reitz, Lee A. Newsom, and Sylvia J. Scudder, eds. New York: Plenum Press, 1996, xxi + 300 pp., $69.50 (cloth), $34.95 (paper). Reviewed by Joseph Schuldenrein, Geoarchaeology Researc h Associates, Inc., Riverdale, N.Y.
Andean Art at Dumbarton Oaks. 2 vols. Elizabeth Hill Boone, ed. Baltimore, Md.: Dumbarton Oaks Publishing, 1996, xix + 497 pp., photos, illustrations, $150.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Garth Bawden, University of New Mexico.
The Aztecs. Michael E. Smith. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publishers, 1996, xx + 361 pp., 102 illustrations, 9 tables, $25.95 (cloth). Reviewed by Deborah L. Nichols, Dartmouth College.
The Manged Mosaic: Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use. Scott L. Fedick, ed. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997, xiv + 360 pp., 51 illustrations, 10 halftones, 45 maps, $60.00 (cloth). Reviewed by Patricia A. McAnany, Bo ston University.
Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization. Vincent H. Malmstrom. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997, xiii + 288 pp., 18 black-and-white photographs, 29 maps, 11 figures, 7 tables, $40.00 (clot h), $17.95 (paper). Reviewed by Anthony F. Aveni, Colgate University.
Historic Zuni Architecture and Society: An Archaeological Application of Space Syntax. T. J. Ferguson. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona no. 60, 1996, xiv + 176 pp., $14.95 (paper). Reviewed by Wendy Bustard, National Park Service, Chaco Museum Collection.
Evolving Complexity and Environmental Risk in the Prehistoric Southwest: Proceedings from the Workshop "Resource Stress, Economic Uncertainty, and Human Response in the Prehistoric Southwest" Held February 25-29, 1992 in Santa Fe, NM. Joseph A. Tainter and Bonnie Bagley Tainter, eds. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Proceedings vol. 24. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1996, xii + 284 pp., $34.49 (paper). Reviewed by Lisa C. Young, Uni versity of Michigan.
Mimbres Mogollon Archaeology: Charles C. Di Peso's Excavations at Wind Mountain. Anne I. Woosley and Allan J. McIntyre. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997, 480 pp., 260 illustrations. An Amerind Foundation Publication, Dra goon, Arizona. $55.00 (cloth). Reviewed by J.J. Brody, University of New Mexico.
Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State. Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, eds. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1995, 171 pp., 32.50 (cloth). Reviewed by James L. Boone, University of New Mexico.
Anthropology, Space and Geographic Information Systems. Mark Aldenderfer and Herbert D.G. Maschner, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, x + 294 pp., $49.95 (cloth). Reviewed by James L. Ebert, Ebert and Associates, Inc., Albuqu erque, N.M.
Gender and Archaeology. Rita P. Wright, ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996, xii + 296 pp., maps, illustrations, $38.95 (cloth), $18.95 (paper). Reviewed by Mary K. Whelan, University of Iowa.
Gender in Archeology: Analyzing Power and Prestige. Sarah Milledge Nelson. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, 1997, 240 pp., $46.00 (cloth), $19.95 (paper). Reviewed by Alison E. Rautman, Michigan State University.
Women in Human Evolution. Lori D. Hager, ed. London and New York: Routledge, 1997, xii + 214 pp., 14 black-and-white illustrations, $69.95 (cloth), $18.95 (paper). Reviewed by Mary Ellen Morbeck, University of Arizona.