THE BOW AND THE BLANKET: RELIGION, IDENTITY AND RESISTANCE IN RARAMURI MATERIAL CULTURE
Jerome M. Levi
The identification of subcultures among the Raramuri (Tarahumara) of northwest Mexico usually has been discussed in terms of differences pertaining to religion rather than material culture. This article, however, suggests that different subsets of the same material cutlure also reflect internal differentiation among the Raramuri and explores how these may be correlated with distinctions between "baptized" and "unbaptized" subgroups. Special attention is given to how unbaptized Raramuri in one area deploy salient object classes as an expression of their local identity and ideological resistance to Mestizo hegemony. Analysis focuses on the cultural and symbolic meanings implicit in the manufacture and use of "archaic" kinds of textiles and bows and arrows. The article responds to larger debates on the relationship among identity, resistance, and material culture by suggesting that renewed consideration of the material markers of internal differentiation is a critical counterbalance to recent discourse emphasizing linkages between global and local economies.
WITHOUT NATION, WITHOUT COMMUNITY: THE GROWTH OF MAYA NATIONALISM AMONG CH'ORTI'S OF EASTERN GUATEMALA
Until recently, Mesoamerican history has largely been characterized by the struggles of local communities for autonomy against encroaching states. In Guatemala, Ch'orti' communities in the east have generally suffered more pressure than Maya communities of the west. By the end of this century, Ch'orti' culture(s) and ethnic identity(ies) have become severely threatened by poverty, ethnic discrimination, and state repression, while no national culture or identity has replaced them. The Guatemalan Peace Process has opened a political space for a pan-Maya Movement organized by western Guatemalan Maya intellectuals. The Movement has proven attractive to an increasing number of Ch'orti's, who are recovering a positive identity together with the confidence and motivation needed to participate in a new Guatemalan state. The Ch'orti' case illuminates the processes of indigenous ethnic change, the uneven popularity of the Maya Movement, and current debates on essentialism and the "invention of tradition".
TECHNOLOGICAL ADOPTION IN RURAL COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA
Jonathan Morduch and David Bravo
A survey of about one thousand smallholder households in the Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia, is used to examine the determinants of adoption of new farm technologies. A historical analysis shows that govenrment policies since colonial days have made it difficult for smallholders to accumulate assets and improve farm productivity. The survey is used to identify the ecological and socioeconomic determinants of the adoption of chemical fertilizers and pesticides among smallholders in four altitude zones: highlands, high valleys, low valleys, and tropics. Ecological zone did not prove to be a statistically significant determinant of adoption in the pooled sample. Within any one altitude zone, no determinant predicted the adoption of both technologies. Standard determinants of adoption in other countries (e.g., education, income, land tenure) did not explain adoption across zones or for either of the two technologies. The conclusion contains a discussion of the role of history in adoption and the possible consequences of adoption for smallholders and Bolivia.
BEHAVIORAL COMPLEXITY AND BIOCULTURAL CHANGE IN EUROPE AROUND FORTY THOUSAND YEARS AGO
Eudald Carbonell and Manuel Vaquero
The questions of the biological origins of anatomically modern humans and of the cultural transition between the Middle and the Upper Paleolithic are two of the most controversial issues in paleoanthropology and Paleolithic archaeology. This article reviews some of the main topics related to the Middle/Upper Paleolithic transition and suggests the principal role of the concept of complexity in understanding this cultural and historical change. The archaeological record of the Abric Romani Middle Paleolithic site is presented as an example of this approach. Our principal aim is not to add new and revolutionary facts but to suggest some thoughts for discussion, in the hope of opening a new perspective in the current debate.
THE PEOPLINGS OF EUROPE: A J.A.R. DEBATE
Lawrence G. Straus
Ground-Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists. Lawrence B. Conyers and Dean Goodman. Walnut Creek, Calif: Altamira Press, 1997, 232 pp., 15 color plates, halftones, black-and-white illustrations. $54.00, cloth; $26.95, paper. Reviewed by Brooks B. Ellwood, University of Texas at Arlington.
Posiciones Teoricas en la Archaeologia de Guatemala. Edgar Gutierrez Mendoza. Guatemala: Universidad de San Carlos, 1996, 232 pp., 44 figures, 30 black-and-white photographs. Reviewed by Luis Alberto Borrero, Programa de Estudios Prehistoricos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Technicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Maya Civilization, 1990-1995: A Research Guide, vol. 2. John M. Weeks, ed. Lancaster, Calif: Labyrinthos, 1997, xxii + 309 pp., 17 illustrations. $30.00, cloth. Reviewed by Stanley L. Walling, Montclair State University.
Introduction to Library Research in Anthropology, 2nd ed. John M. Weeks. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997, viii + 401 pp. $60.00, cloth. Reviewed by Carol Joiner, University of New Mexico.
Dance: Rituals of Experience, 3rd ed. Jamake Highwater. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 228 pp., black-and-white photographs. $19.95, paper. Reviewed by Jill D. Sweet, Skidmore College.
Shamans and Elders: Experience, Knowledge, and Power among the Daur Mongols. Caroline Humphrey with Urgunge Onon. Oxford, Eng.: Clarendon Press, 1996, xiv + 396 pp., 2 maps. $80.00, cloth; $24.95, paper. Reviewed by Alexia Bloch, American Museum of Natural History.
The Play of Mirrors: The Representation of Self Mirrored in the Other. Sylvia Caiuby Novaes, trans. by Izabel Murat Burbridge. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997, xx + 177 pp., 18 black-and-white illustrations, 4 tables. $14.95, paper. Reviewed by Allyn MacLean Stearman, University of Central Florida.
American Indian Activism: Alcatraz to the Longest Walk. Troy Johnson, Joane Nagel, and Duane Champagn, eds. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1997, 296 pp., 8 halftones. $36.95, cloth; $19.95, paper. Reviewed by Les Field, University of New Mexico.
Sex and the Origins of Death. William R. Clark. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, xii + 190 pp., illustrations. $25.00, cloth; $14.95, paper. Reviewed by David A. Bennahum, M.D., School of Medecine, University of New Mexico.