ANTHROPOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL CERAMIC STUDIES: AN INTRODUCTION
Arleyn W. Simon
James H. Burton
For decades, ceramic analysis has been widely used in archaeological research of the American Southwest, but several recent ceramic studies have gone well beyond classification and material sourcing to examine the soicial relationships among ceramic exchange, production and complexity. Presented here are studies from Classic period (A.D. 1270-1450) sites of central Arizona that focus on prehistoric social relationships among communities during times of population movement and aggregation. These recent research projects have made significant interpretive strides by examining ceramic change as an indicator of exchange pattern modifications and population shifts. These studies establish substantial databases of ceramic analyses and integrate results from complementary research methods to develop and test models of social interaction.
THE BROWN AND THE GRAY: POTS AND POPULATION MOVEMENT IN EAST-CENTRAL ARIZONA
J. Jefferson Reid
Barbara K. Montgomery
Decorated ceramiccs have long been used as markers of trade, population movement, and ethnic identity in the American Southwest. Undecorated ceramics have also functioned as ethnic marckers. Brown wares have been equated with mountain people and gray wares with plateau people. Most of these studies have not distinguished the movemement of pots from the movement of people. In this study, undecorated ceramics are shown to be useful in tracing population movement over short distances within a region, while decorated ceramics are more useful in detecting movement between regions.
DEFINING MATERIAL CORRELATES FOR CERAMIC CIRCULATION IN THE PREHISTORIC PUEBLOAN SOUTHWEST
Maria Nieves Zedeno
The circulation of material goods plays a crucial role in the organization and evolution of social networkds in preindustrial societies. In the American Southwest, the study of exchange networks, and particularly of ceramic exchange, has taken a central place in archaeological research that aims at reconstructing changing patterns of community interaction and sociopolitical organization in prehistoric Southwestern societies. This article examines recent models and methods for reconstructing exchange and presents criteria for defining material correlates of the diverse mechanisms of ceramic circulation present in the northern Southwest during the late Pueblo III and Pueblo IV periods (A.D. 1250-1450). Examples from ceramic research in the Grasshopper and Point of Pines regions of east-central Arizona illustrate the proposed criteria.
SOCIAL BOUNDARIES SET IN CLAY: TRADE WARE PATTERNING IN THE TONTO BASIN OF EAST-CENTRAL ARIZONA
Kathy Niles Hensler
Ceramic exchange networks reflect the socioeconomic ties of the individuals and groups who are party to the exchange. Distributions of trade wares are examined for the Classic period in the Tonto Basin of central Arizona. Initially all of the Tonto Basin appears to have had relatively equal access to distant trading partners. By the fourteenth century, however, trade ware ceramics had differential distributions in the basin, supporting the interprettaiton that platform mound communities at the eastern end of the Tonto Basin traded with settlements in different areas than platform mound communities at the western end of the basin did. These differences likely represent social boundaries among competing polities in the same local region.
CERAMIC MANUFACTURE, PRODUCTIVE SPECIALIZATION, AND THE EARLY CLASSIC PERIOD IN ARIZONA'S TONTO BASIN
Miriam T. Stark
James M. Heidke
Compositional analysis supports a model of multiple ceramic production modes during the Miami and Roosevelt phases of the early Classic period (ca. AD 1150-1350) in the Tonto Basin of central Arizona. We interpret temper compositional patterning to suggest that potters in most villages made some of their plain wares and red wares. In one area of the lower Tonto Basin, we believe that poters in many villages made some of their own unslipped corrugated wares. Data described in this study also suggest that specialists manufactured certain wares in particular settlements throughout the basin. Compositional homogeneity in some red wares and most slipped corrugated wares (Salado Red, Salado White-on-red) suggests that they were the objects of speicalized production. Patterning in the compositional data also suggests the possibility that some Tonto Basin settlements specialized in the production of plain wares and unslipped corrugated wares, although potters also produced these two wares at the local level.
INTRAREGIONAL CONNECTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF SALADO POLYCHROMES IN CENTRAL ARIZONA
Arleyn W. Simon
James H. Burton
David R. Abbott
Salado polychrome is associated with Classic period (A.D. 1270-1450) sites across much of the American Southwest, but its distributions are variable. Although multiple production centers are recognized for these decorated vessels, their roles in intraregional social networks are still open to interpretation. Recent compositional studies using peterography and weak-acid extraction ICP-MS compare locally produced wares to the characterization of Salado polychromes. Data from several adjacent study areas are used to assess the development and distributionsof Pinto, Gila, and Tonto polychromes. These decorated vessels are evidence of a highly differentiated intraregional network of exchange and communication which spanned the platform mound communities of central Arizona.
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