JOURNAL of
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
Volume 55, Number 2, Abstracts

3 JAR Distinguished Lectures:
F. Clark Howell on the Evolution of Genus Homo;
C. Loring Brace & Yolanda T. Moses
with Biological & Cultural Perspectives on "Race"


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PREFACE: HOMO: E PLURIBUS UNUM

Lawrence Guy Straus, Editor
Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131


PALEO-DEMES, SPECIES CLADES, AND EXTINCTIONS IN THE PLEISTOCENE HOMININ RECORD

F. Clark Howell
Laboratory for Human Evolutionary Studies/ Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

Human evolutionary studies exist in their own right due to our own anthropocentricity, but particularly through developments within the natural sciences. The emergence of an autonomous evolutionary biology has largely engulfed human evolutionary studies. Most perspectives of earlier workers are inexplicit in regard to phylogenetic inference, taxonomic resolution, process, pattern, tempo, and other aspects of hominin evolution, and thus are archaic, irrelevant, or both. Matters of epistemology have scarcely merited explicit, critical consideration; even inference as to the best explanation (abduction) has rarely been employed, or employed consistently.
Human populations, their genic structure, variability, affinities and histories are now elucidated and directly quantified through molecular biology and population genetics. Past hominin populations are increasingly composed of samples necessary and sufficient to characterize paleo-demes (p-demes) and, ultimately, species clades representative of spatio-temporally bounded entities, the nature and affinities of which are informed through functional, cladistic, and morphometrical investigation. Diverse aspects of earlier hominin habitats, distributions, adaptations, and behavioral parameters are increasingly revealed through multifaceted approaches, all within the framework of paleoanthropology and focused on fuller recovery and elucidation of the Pleistocene archaeological record. Here, some central aspects of Pleistocene hominin evolution are broadly set out from such perspectives. Controversial issues exist, of course, but overall are secondary, in view of the prevalence of normal scientific practice.


AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON "RACE" AND INTELLIGENCE: THE NON-CLINAL NATURE OF HUMAN COGNITIVE CAPABILITIES

C. Loring Brace
Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Traits that are clinally distributed are under the control of selective forces that are distributed in graded fashion. Traits that cluster in certain regions are simply the results of relatedness and are not adaptively important. Traits that are of equal survival value for all human populations should show no average difference from one population to another. Human cognitive capacity, founded on the ability to learn a language, is of equal survival value to all human groups, and consequently there is no valid reason to expect that there should be average differences in intellectual ability among living human populations. The archaeological record shows that , at any one time during the Pleistocene, survival strategies were essentially the same throughout the entire range of human occupation. Both archaeological and biological data contribute to the pictire of the slow emergence of human linguistic behavior and its subsequent maturation. The similarities in human capability were not the result of a sudden, recent, and localized common origin. Instead, the widely shared common human condition was the consequence of a long-term adaptation to common conditions among groups. The differences in human lifeways that have arisen since the end of the Pleistocene-- and in most instances much more recently-- have had too little time to have had any measurable effect on the generation of inherited differences in intellectual ability. When average group differences in "intelligence" test scores are encountered, the first conclusion to be drawn is that the circumstances under which intellectual capabilities are nurtured and developed are not the same for the groups in question. Where such tects show different "racial" averages in test scores, this should be taken as an index of the continuing effects of "race" prejudice and not of inherent differences in capablities.


RACE, HIGHER EDUCATION, AND AMERICAN SOCIETY

Yolanda T. Moses
President, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031

This article explores three connected premises: first, that folk beliefs about the immutable nature of race and prevalent in society today; second, that there is a social and cultural reluctance to discuss American racialized worldview; and, third, that there is the potential for American policy makers and society at large to reembrace biological determinism and social Darwinism at the millenium. The author suggests that anthropologists have a major role to play in educating a wider public about race, cultural pluralism, and diversity in education. Anthropologists should do this by (1)articulating for a general audience what race is and what it is not; (2)providing an anthropological analysis of higher education as a public right or a public good; (3) providing an anthopological analysis of the contemporary American culture of education and educational success; (4) explaining American paradoxical behavior concerning affirmative action.


BOOK REVIEWS

Evolution of Social Behavior Patterns in Primates and Man. W.G. Runciman, J. Maynard Smith, and R.I.M. Dunbar, eds. Proceedings of the British Academy 88. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 308 pp. + illustrations. $25.00, cloth. Reviewed by Jim Moore, University of California, San Diego.

Making Doctors: An Institutional Apprenticeship. Simon Sinclair. Oxford and New York: Berg, 1997, 347 pp. $19.50, paper; $49.50, cloth. Reviewed by David Bennahum, M.D., University of New Mexico.

Human Adaptability: Past, Present, and Future. S.J. Ulijaszek and R.A. Huss-Ashmore, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 325 pp. $120.00, cloth. Reviewed by Joel D. Irish, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Rediscovering Darwin: Evolutionary Theory and Archaeological Explanation. C. Michael Barton and Geoffrey A. Clark, eds. Arlington Va.: American Anthropological Association, Archaeological Press, 1997, vii + 323 pp. $20.00, paper, AAA members; $27.50, paper, non-members. Reviewed by R.C. Dunnell, University of Washington.

Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. William Andrefsky, Jr. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1998, xxvii + 258 pp., 100 black-and-white illustrations. $69.95, cloth; $27.95, paper. Reviewed by Michael J. Schott, University of Northern Iowa.

Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. Takeru Akazawa, Kenichi Aoki, and Ofer Bar-Yosef, eds. New York: Plenum Press, 1998, xi + 539 pp., illustrations. $79.50, cloth. Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.

Conversations with Lewis Binford: Drafting the New Archaeology. Paula L.W.Sabloff. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998, xv + 108 pp. $18.95, cloth; $9.95, paper. Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.

As the World Warmed: Human Adaptations across the Pleistocene-Holocene Boundary. B.V. Eriksen and L.G. Straus, eds. Quaternary Internations vols. 49/50. Oxford: INQWUA/Elsevier Science Ltd., 1998, $19.00, paper. Reviewed by G.A. Clark, Arizona State University.

La Grotte du Bois Laiterie: Recolonisation Magdalenienne de la Belgique (Magdalenian Resettlement of Belgium). M. Otte and L.G. Straus. eds. ERAUL 80. Liege, Belgium: ERAUL, 1997, 391 pp. 2,000 B.F. Reviewed by Anta Montet-White, University of Kansas.

A Hunter-Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Last Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Michael A. Jochim. New York: Plenum Press, 1998, xvii + 247 pp. $49.50, cloth; $24.50, paper. Reviewed by James Pokines, Field Museum.

Journey through the Ice Age. Paul G. Bahn with photographs by Jean Vertut.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, 240 pp., 150 color and 50 blcak-and-white illustrations. $39.95, cloth. Reviewed by Alexander Marshack, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.

Aztec Art. Esther Pasztory. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998, 335 pp., 319 black-and-white illustrations, 75 color illustrations. $29.95, paper. Reviewed by Joyce Marcus, University of Michigan.

Ritual and Myth in Odawa Revitalization: Reclaiming a Sovereign Place. Melissa A Pflug. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998, xvi + 280 pp. $28.95, cloth. Reviewed by J. Anthony Paredes, Florida State University.

Walking Where We Lived: Memories of a Mono Indian Family. Gaylen D. Lee. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998, 208 pp., 29 halftones, 2 maps. $23.95, cloth. Reviewed by Les Field, University of New Mexico.

Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 12: Plateau. Deward Walker, Jr., ed. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1998, xvi + 791 pp. $61.00, cloth. Reviewed by Brian Hayden, Simon Fraser University.

Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 17: Languages. Ives Goddard, ed. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1996, xiii + 957 pp. $74.00, cloth. Reviewed by David Dinwoodie, University of New Mexico.

Population Dynamics of Philippine Rain Forest People: The San Ildefonso Agta. John D. Early and Thomas N. Headland. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1998, x + 208 pp., 31 halftones, 23 graphes, 4 maps. $39.95, cloth. Reviewed by Kim Hill, University of New Mexico.

From Principles to Practiced: Indigenous Peoples and Biodiversity Conservation in Latin America. International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA). IWGIA Documents no. 87, Proceedings of the Pucallpa Conference, March 1997. Copenhagen: IWGIA, 1998, 304 pp. $25.00, paper. Reviewed by Ted Gragson, University of Georgia.

The Indigenous World 1997-98. International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA). Copenhagen: IWGIA, 1998, 400 pp., photographs, maps. $25.00 + postage, paper. Reviewed by Les Field, University of New Mexico.

Bahia Colorada (Ile d'Englefield): Les Premiers Chasseurs de Mammiferes Marins de Patagonie Australe. Dominique Legoupil. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations ADPFlta, 1997, 258 pp., 87 figures, 51 plans, 21 tables,31 black-and-white photographs. Fr 340, paper. Reviewed by Thomas F. Lynch, Brazos Valley Museum, Bryan, Texas.

Possession and Law in Ewe Voodoo. Judy Rosenthal. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, xii + 282 pp., 10 halftones. $52.50, cloth; $18.00, paper. Reviewed by Erika Bourguignon, Ohio State University.

Symbolic Heat: Gender, Health, and Worship among the Tamils of South India and Sri Lanka. Dennis B. McGilvray. Almedabad, India: Mapin Publishing Pvt., Ltd., 1998, 72 pp., 38 color photographs, 35 black-and-white photographs. $15.00, paper. Reviewed by Steven Tyler, Rice University.

Pragmatism and Development: The Prospect for Pluralist Transformation in the Third World. Murray J. Leaf. Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1998, xiv + 229 pp. $59.95, cloth. Reviewed by E. Paul Durrenberger, Pennsylvania State University.

Settleing Accounts: Violence, Justice, and Accountability in Postsocialist Europe. John Borneman. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997, xii + 197 pp. $49.50, cloth; $14.95, paper. Reviewed by Howard J. DeNike, San Francisco, Calif.