L.G.FREEMAN: AN APPRECIATION
L.G. FREEMAN AND SPANISH PREHISTORY
THIRTY YEARS OF MESOLITHIC RESEARCH IN ATLANTIC COASTAL IBERIA (1970-2000)
After a lapse of about two decades (1950-1970), and partly because of generational replacement, Late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherer adaptations along the Atlantic coasts of Iberia have been the subject of renewed research efforts. Conducted under a broadly defined ecofunctionalist paradigm, post-1970 work has yielded a more complete picture of regional variability than was previously available. Although differences are apparent in the tempo and intensity of research along the Cantabrian coast of Spain and in Atlantic Portugal, similar processes of resource diversification and intensification appear to be documented in both areas. These processes can be traced back to the pleniglacial maximum and are explained by population-resource imbalances created by an influx ofimmigrantsfrom the north into already densely populated coastal areas.
A QUARTER-CENTURY OF RESEARCH ON THE SOLUTREAN OF VASCO-CANTABRIA, IBERIA AND BEYOND
Lawrence Guy Straus
Twentv-five years ago, my initial approach to the Solutrean archaeological phenomenon was to use it as a conveniently bounded case studyfor the explanation of interassemblage variability in the Upper Paleolithic. Although my main conclusions supported an essentially functionalist basis for explaining Solutrean variability, subsequent discoveries do also point to a process of technological change, or "desolutreanization, " toward the end of the period between c. 20,500 and 16,500 radiocarbon years ago. My view of the Solutrean has considerably expanded to see it as a historical response to the climatic crisis ofthe Last Glacial Maximum and to interpret its restricted geographical distribution with high regional site numbers as evidence of a human refugium in southwestern Europe. Many of the characteristically Solutrean developments in technology (especially weaponry), intensified subsistence practices, and even art styles and other evidence of territories and social networks make sense in this context at the level of regional bands, here explored with particular reference to the Iberian Peninsula.
THE CHATELPERRONIAN IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Francis B. Harrold
The Early Upper Paleolithic industry known as the Chatelperronian has been the subject of considerable controversy since its recognition early in the twentieth century. It has variously been considered to be associated with Neandertals or with modern humans, to be an intrusive or an indigenous development, and to be related or unrelated to subsequent industries in France and Spain. The dominant views of the Chatelperronian have changed over time in ways related both to changing theoretical perspectives in paleoanthropology and to the accumulating database at archaeologists' disposal
A SPANISH RESISTANCE? SOCIAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE STUDY OF PALEOLITHIC ART IN SPAIN
Margaret W. Conkey
This essay is a brief inquiry into the ways in which a "social archaeology "from the Anglo-American traditions of archaeology has or has not influenced or been used in studies of Spanish Paleolithic art. The article traces the outlines of what "social archaeology" is, from its historical roots in the New Archaeology, and it also briefly considers how Paleolithic art, in general, has been interpreted. It then reviews some of the relevant Spanish literature of the past decade in terms of concepts or models that are either inspired by this "social archaeology" or that articulate a social approach to the interpretation of Spanish Paleolithic art. It appears as if the most-discussed, although not widely accepted, model is that of aggregation sites, especially in regard to the art site of Altamira. While most researchers agree that the art was embedded in social life, few new social models havebeendevelopedorproposed, butatleastaspacehasbeen openedupforsocial accounts that should benefitfrom the increasingly refined empirical research that characterizes much of the recent literature on Spanish Paleolithic art.
MICROFAUNAL RESEARCH DESIGN IN THE CANTABRIAN SPANISH PALEOLITHIC
James T. Pokines
Changing levels of paleoenvironmental inference are detailed for the site of El Juyo, a Cantabrian Spanish Lower Magdalenian cave site occupied c. 14,000 B.P. The succession of these changes represents stages in the history of Cantabrian Spanish Paleolithic microfaunal investigations as a whole. These stages are divided by component of overall microfaunal recovery: mapped, coarse screen, and fine screen. Inference has progressed from the initial stage early this century of the fortuitous collection of indicatorspecies, represented by microfauna detectedandmapped during excavation of El Juyo. Coarse screening leads to significant microfaunal recovery. This level of inference is analogous to a middle stage in the history of microfaunal research in the Cantabrian Spanish Paleolithic. The addition of microfauna derived from fine screening of El Juyo deposits represents maximal recovery and a new stage in the history of microfaunal investigations. This level of recovery allows taphonomic determination of the primary agency of microfaunal accumulation, close estimation of the surrounding habitat types, and new inferences concerning season of habitation and small faunal exploitation.
UPPER PALEOLITHIC TRANSITIONS: EVIDENCE FROM ORGANIC ARTIFACTS OF CANTABRIA SPAIN
Heather Stettler1164 E., 1st Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84103
Changes in the morphology andpattems ofelaboration ofbone and antler artifacts are used to elucidate patterns of behavioral change in the Upper Paleolithic in Cantabrian Spain. Resultsfrom analyses of the organic artifact industries of Cantabrian industrial complexes indicate that in addition to the major behavioraishift at the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition, important changes in human behavior began during the Solutrean and were fully established by the Lower Magdalenian. The appearances of these changes were temporally staggered and are clearest when compared to an Early Upper Paleolithic pattern of behavior. This research demonstrates that information about behavioral change can be recovered using an approach that examines artifact attributes that are differentfrom those typically studiedfor organic artifact industries. Ultimately, this research relates to theories of behavioral transitions and the development of modem human behavior within the Upper Paleolithic.
Un Campement Magdalenien au Bord du Lac de Neuchatel: Contexte, Vestiges, Activites. Hauterive-Champreveyres 10.Denise Leesch, with contributions by J. Affolter, C.W. Beck, and W.H. Schoch.Archeologie Neuchateloise 19. Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1997, 270 pp., black-and-white and color illustrations, halftones, plus a seperate looseleaf volume (10*) of 6 large scale maps. Cloth, no price given.
Un Campement Magdalenien au Bord du Lac de Neuchatel: Etude Archeozoologique. Hauterive Champreveyers 11.Philippe Morel and Werner Muller, with Denise Leesch and contributions by A. Burke and J. Chaline.Archeologie Neuchateloise 23. Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1997, 149 pp., black-and-white illustrations, halftones. Cloth, no price given.
Reduction Processes ("Chaines Operatoires") for the European Mousterian. A. Bietti and S. Grimaldi , eds. Quaternaria Nova 6,Rome, "1996" (1998), 520 pp. Paper, no price given.
Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age Settlement Systems. N.J. Conrad and F. Wendorf, eds. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the Union International des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques. Forli: A.B.A.C.O. Edizioni, 1996, 105 pp. Paper, no price given. Reviewed by L. G. Straus, University of New Mexico.