JOURNAL of
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
Volume 56, Number 3, Abstracts
JAR Distinguished Lecture:
Wm. Longacre on "Ceramic Sociology"
plus Forager "Affluence"
& an Asian Trio


Home Page Index of Abstracts Manuscript Information Subscription Information


EXPLORING PREHISTORIC SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST

William A. Longacre
Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721

For more than 125 years, archaeologists working in the American Southwest have made various attempts to reconstruct aspects of the social and political organization of the region's Native American peoples. Initial work focused upon the analysis of prehistoric pottery and architecture and included an ethnoarchaeological component. After the turn of the century, archaeologists turned away from such attempts in response to the rise of Boasian Historical Particularism. With a few notable exceptions, a return to such interests waited until after World War II and, once again focused upon ceramic and architectural data. The New Archaeology of the 1960s saw the development of "Ceramic Sociology, "and that, in turn, gave rise to refinements in method and theory that follow into the current period. Recent work includes ethnoarchaeological studies as well as longitudinal architectural analyses and creative analyses of other artifacts.


THE DARKER SIDE OF THE "ORIGINAL AFFLUENT SOCIETY"

David Kaplan
Anthropology Department, Brandeis University, Walthum, MA 02254-9110

Hunter gatherers emerged from the "Man the Hunter" conference in 1966 as the "original affluent society." The main features of this thesis now seem to be widely accepted by anthropologists, despite the strong reservations expressed by certain specialists in foraging societies concerning the data advanced to support the claim. This essay brings together a portion of the data and argumentation in the literature that raise a number of questions about hunter-gatherer affluence. Three topics are addressed: How "hard" do foragers work? How well-fed are members of foraging societies? And what do we mean by "work," "leisure, " and "affluence" in the context of foraging societies? Finally, this essay offers some thoughts about why, given the reservations and critical observations expressed by anthropologists who work with foragers, the thesis seems to have been enthusiastically embraced by most anthropologists


SUBSISTENCE CHANGE AT KONAM-RI: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADVENT OF RICE AGRICULTURE IN KOREA

Christopher J. Norton
P.O. Box 483, New Brunswick, N.J. 08903

Attempts at reconstructing subsistence strategies in prehistoric Korea, particularly during the Neolithic and Bronze Age, are few. Research directed towards explaining change in subsistence patterns in this part of East Asia are even fewer. This article addresses the latter question through analysis of vertebrate faunal remains from Konam-ri, a Neolithic/Bronze Age shell midden site located off the central west coast of Korea. Significant distinctions in subsistence strategies are evident between the Neolithic and Bronze Age deposits at Konam-ri: Neolithic Koreans relied heavily on wild game and fish resources, but by the advent of the Bronze Age, subsistence shifted towards a heavier dependence on agricultural products, particularly rice and millet. It is argued here that increasing population pressure during the Neolithic may have been the causal factor leading to intensified procurement of the Konam-ri inhabitants’ primary resource: fish. This intensification, in turn, could have caused overexploitation and a subsequent heavier dependence on previously secondary and tertiary resources (i.e., rice and millet agriculture). This evidence may have further implications for other regions of Korea.


SUBSISTENCE CHANGE AT KONAM-RI: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADVENT OF RICE AGRICULTURE IN KOREA

Christopher J. Norton
P.O. Box 483, New Brunswick, N.J. 08903

Attempts at reconstructing subsistence strategies in prehistoric Korea, particularly during the Neolithic and Bronze Age, are few. Research directed towards explaining change in subsistence patterns in this part of East Asia are even fewer. This article addresses the latter question through analysis of vertebrate faunal remains from Konam-ri, a Neolithic/Bronze Age shell midden site located off the central west coast of Korea. Significant distinctions in subsistence strategies are evident between the Neolithic and Bronze Age deposits at Konam-ri: Neolithic Koreans relied heavily on wild game and fish resources, but by the advent of the Bronze Age, subsistence shifted towards a heavier dependence on agricultural products, particularly rice and millet. It is argued here that increasing population pressure during the Neolithic may have been the causal factor leading to intensified procurement of the Konam-ri inhabitants’ primary resource: fish. This intensification, in turn, could have caused overexploitation and a subsequent heavier dependence on previously secondary and tertiary resources (i.e., rice and millet agriculture). This evidence may have further implications for other regions of Korea.


THE LIMINAL FAMILY: RETURN MIGRATION AND INTERGENERATIONAL CONFLICT IN JAPAN

John W. Traphagan
Center for Gerontological Anthropology, Department of Anthropology,
California State University Fullerton, PO Box 6846, Fullerton, CA 92834-6846

The central aim of this article is to explore, from the perspective of return migrants, the interplay of power and multiple obligations that shapes the experience of return migration from major metropolitan areas to rural areas in Japan. I suggest that for many, return migration means inhabiting a liminal social position between the neolocal and stem family ideologies that co-exist in Japan. I examine the narratives of two return migrants, with specific reference to the interplay of power relations within the family that contributed to their returns. This article also presents an example of how quantitative demographic data taken from a national census can be used by anthropologists to inform traditional qualitative data. Employing a demographic technique known as cohort analysis, I examine inter- and intraprefectural migration patterns in Japan. Data from the Japanese national census are analyzed to consider the relationship between population distribution and age structure.


BOOK REVIEWS

German Bodies: Race and Representation after Hitler. Uli Linke. New York and London: Routledge, 1999, xiii + 274 pp. $20.99, paper; $90.00, cloth.
Reviewed by Gretchen Schafft, American University.

Anthropology of Food: The Social Dynamics of Food Security. Johan PottierOxford. Blackwell Publishers, 1999, 230 pp. $24.95, paper
Reviewed by Eriberto P. Lozada, Jr., Butler University

Art As Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art. 2nd ed. Evelyn Payne Hatcher.Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1999, 360 pp. $55.00, cloth.
Reviewed by Joyce M. Szabo, University of New Mexico.

Savaging the Civilized: Verrier Elwin, His Tribals, and India. Ramachandra Guha. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999, 398 pp. $32.00, cloth.
Reviewed by Gerald D. Berreman, University of California, Berkeley.

Mayan People within and beyond Boundaries: Social Categories and Lived Identity in Yucatan. Peter Hervik. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999, 214 pp. $48.00, cloth.
Reviewed by Jayne Howell, California State University, Long Beach.

Reconstructing Ancient Maya Diet. Christine D. White, ed. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999, 260 pp., black-and-white illustrations. $45.00, cloth.
Reviewed by Jane Buikstra, University of New Mexico.

Buried Cities, Forgotten Gods: William Niven's Life of Discovery and Revolution in Mexico and the American Southwest. Robert S. Wicks and Roland H. Harrison. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1999, 330 pp., 135 black-and-white photographs, maps. $39.95, cloth.
Reviewed by Anne Woosley, Amerind Foundation.

Grit-Tempered: Early Women Archaeologists in the Southeastern United States. . Nancy Marie White, Lynne P Sullivan, and Rochelle A. Marrinan, eds. Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida, 1999, 416 pp., 80 black-and-white photographs, tables. $49.95, cloth.
Reviewed by Kristen J. Gremillion, Ohio State University

Historical Archaeology: Back from the Edge. Pedro Paulo A. Funan, Martin Hall, and Sian Johns, eds. New York: Routledge, 1999, 350 pp. $150.00, cloth.
Reviewed by Mark P. Leone, University of Maryland.

Staging Ritual: Hopewell Ceremonialism at the Mound House Site, Greene County, Illinois. Jane E Buikstra, Douglas K Charles, and Gordon F M Rakita. Kampsville, Ill.: Center for American Archeology, Kampsville Studies in Archeology and History 1, 1998, 198 pp. $20.00, paper.
Reviewed by Timothy R. Pauketat, University of Illinois, Urbana.

Prehistory of Australia. John Mulvaney and Johan Kamminga. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999, xx + 480 pp., 102 illustrations. $27.95, paper.
Reviewed by James O'Connell, University of Utah.

The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Beatrix Midant-Reynes. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000, xv + 328 pp. $29.95, paper; $64.95, cloth.
Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus, University of New Mexico.

Prehistoric Warfare In the American Southwest. Steven A. LeBlanc. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999, 400 pp., 70 illustrations and maps. $34.95, cloth.
Reviewed by Michael A. Adler, Southern Methodist University.

The Prehistory of Colorado and Adjacent Areas. Tammy Stone. ed. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999, x + 214 pp., 34 black-and-white illustrations. $17.50, paper.
Reviewed by David E. Stuart, University of New Mexico.

Grasshopper Pueblo: A Story of Archaeology and Ancient Life. Jefferson Reid and Stephanie Whittlesey. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1999, 204 pp., 32 photographs, 8 illustrations. $15.95, paper; $29.95, cloth.
Reviewed by Alison E. Rautmen, Michigan State University.

Models for the Millennium: Great Basin Anthropology Today. Charlotte Beck, ed. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999, 314 pp., 43 illustrations, 8 maps. $65.00, cloth.
Reviewed by C. Melvin Aikens, University of Oregon.

Excavations at the Indian Creek Site, Antigua, West Indies. Irving Rouse and Birgit Faber Morse. Yale University Publications in Anthropology 82, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1999, 70 pp. $18.00, paper.
Reviewed by Peter E. Siegel, John Milner Associates, West Chester, PA.

Approaches to Landscape. Richard Muir. Lanham, Md.: Rowma and Littlefield Publishers, 1999, 320 pp. $59.00, cloth.
Reviewed by A. Bernard Knapp, University of Glasgow.

The Material Life of Human Beings: Artifacts, Behavior, and Communication. Michael Brian Schiffer. New York: Routledge, 1999, xiv + 158 pp. $19.99, paper; $65.00, cloth.
Reviewed by John E. Clark, Brigham Young University.