Richard G. Klein
Together with human fossils from eastern and northern Africa, southern
African specimens show that anatomically modern or near-modern people were
present by 100,000 years ago, when only the Neandertals occupied Europe
and different, equally nonmodern people lived in eastern Asia. However,
the artifacts found with early modern or near-modern African fossils imply
Lawrence A. Kuznar
A case of mutualistic plant/human/animal interaction occurs in Navajo corrals in which Navajo herders create ideal environments for the propagation of economically and ceremonially useful nondomesticated plants. This example informs current issues in ecological anthropology, including the concept of domiculture, the importance of symbiotic plants in subsistence, the role of humans in dispersing plants, and the domestication of companion crops. Furthermore, the benefits Navajo derive from these mutualistic interactions affirm certain ideological tenets of Navajo religion and philosophy, leading to misunderstandings between Navajo herders and range specialists interested in developing Navajo pastoralism.
E. Paul Durrenberger
In the United States there are both classes and a folk model that denies
their existence. I explore some anthropologists' and sociologists'
conceptualizations of class and folk models of class. I then discuss
the salience of elements of these folk models that Katherine Newman outlined
as meritocratic individualism for some lawyers, paralegals, and support
staff in a legal agency and for some service sector union stewards.
I conclude that there are powerful forces in the United States that operate
against folk models that recognize class, among them, the structuring of
everyday workplace experience by law and administration practice that operate
against the recognition of class. The same is even more true of academics,
and that situation provides the experiential basis from which some scholars
perpetuate counterfactual folk models of individualism in their academic
In anthropology, triangulation, or the use of multiple methods and sources of data, is usually practiced within a single study, rather than between different studies. Unusual, too, are attempts to confirm results of earlier studies, rather than reinterpret them in competing frameworks. In this article we use systematic interviewing and consensus analysis to test the results of an earlier participant observation study of five Welsh concepts of personhood. We develop a set of scenarios, or brief narratives, to illustrate behavior characteristic of each concept. In systematic interviews we obtained judgments about the "Welshness" of each of these scenarios. Consensus analysis of these judgments confirms and refines the earlier results, illustrating a productive means of reducing bias in research.
Primate Communities. John G. Fleagle, Charles, Janson,
and Kaye E. Reed, eds. New York: Cambridge Univesity Press, 1999, 329
pp. $74.95, cloth; $29.95, paper.
The Archaeology of Death and Burial. Mike Parker.
College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University Press, 2000, 250 pp., black-and-white
Adventures in the Bone Trade: The Race to Discover Human Ancestors
in Ethiopia's Afar Depression. Jon Kalb. New York: Copernicus
Books, 2000, 416 pp., 46 illustrations. $29.00, cloth.
The Geography of Neandertals and Modern Humans in Europe and the
Greater Mediterranean. Ofer Bar-Yosef and David Pilbeam, eds.
Harvard Peabody Museum Bulletin 8. Cambridge, Mass., 2000, x + 197 pp.
Depositional History of Franchthi Cave: Sediments, Stratigraphy and
Chronology. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece, 12. William
R. Farrand with a report on the background of the Franchthi Project
by Thomas W. Jacobsen. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana Univesity
Press, 2000, 135 pp., black-and-white illustrations, halftones. $49.95,
The Prehistory of Food: Appetites for Change. Chris Gosden
and Jon Hunter, eds. New York: Routledge, 1999, 523 pp. $145.00,
Gender Archaeology. Marie Louise Stig Sorenson.
Cambridge, Eng.: Polity Press, 2000, 248 pp. L14.99, paper; L50.00, cloth.
Indigenous South Americans of the Past and Present: An Ecological
Perspective. David J. Wilson. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press,
1999, xxii + 480 pp. $69.00, cloth; $36.00, paper.
Domestic Architecture and Power: The Historical Archaeology of Colonial
Ecuador. Ross W. Jamieson. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Publishers, 2000, xvii + 244 pp. $75.00, cloth.
The Politics of trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600-1730.
P. Matthee. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2000, 312 pp., halftones, maps. $64.95, cloth.
Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Christopher
C. Taylor. New York: Berg Publishers, 1999, 224 pp. $65.00, cloth;
Return to Nisa. Marjorie Shostak. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 2000, 251 pp., 20 halftones. $24.95, cloth.
And Along Came Boas: Continuity and Revolution in American Anthropology.
Regna Darnell. Philadelphia and Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing,
1998, 331 pp. $89.00, cloth.