JOURNAL of 
ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH

INDIGENOUS AMERICA: FROM SASKATCHEWAN TO CHILE, VIA BRAZIL AND BOLIVIA

Volume 60, Number 2, Abstracts

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SILOT’INE: AN INSURANCE PERSPECTIVE ON NORTHERN DENE KINSHIP NETWORKS IN RECENT HISTORY

Robert Jarvenpa
Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany NY 12222

Fundamental patterns in residential groupings, marriage, kinship networks, and alliances are examined for Dene, or Chipewyan, Indian families who occupied winter staging and outpost communities during the 1920s to 1950s, the last decades that seasonal family nomadism and fur hunting were integrally linked as part of a bush economy in central subarctic Canada. Continuities and changes in these patterns are followed into the 1960s to 1990s, an era of accelerating settlement nucleation, service centralization, and wage labor. The role and meaning of personal bilateral kindreds (silot’ine) in these varying historical contexts are highlighted in this analysis. In turn, the Chipewyan experience is used to interpret the kindred in terms of risk-management, insurance, and related theoretical perspectives. Information derives from integrated ethnographic, ethnoarchaeological, and archival research conducted among the Keysehot’ine group of southern Chipewyan between the 1970s and 1990s.


PATIENCE IN A FORAGING-HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY: A TEST OF COMPETING HYPOTHESES

Ricardo Godoy
Sustainable International Development Program, MS 078, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA

Elizabeth Byron
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC 20006-1002, USA

Victoria Reyes-García
Tropical Conservation and Development Center, University of Florida,Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

William R. Leonard
Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA

Karishma Patel
Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA

Lilian Apaza
Protección del Medio Ambiente Tarija – PROMETA, Tarija, Bolivia

Eddy Pérez
Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Ecología - Estación Biológica Tunquini, La Paz, Bolivia

Vincent Vadez
Sustainable International Development Program, Brandeis University,Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA

David Wilkie
Wildlife Conservation Society, Waltham, MA 02154, USA

Patience, or the ability to delay gratification, matters in the behavioral and medical sciences and in public policy because it correlates with a wide range of desirable outcomes. For instance, patience correlates positively with income, wealth, conservation of natural resources, health, and savings and negatively with crime and drug addiction. Anthropologists have made few contributions to crosscultural studies of patience despite its importance. Drawing on five-quarter panel data from 154 Amerindians (10-80 years of age) from the Tsimane’ foraging horticultural society in the Bolivian Amazon, we use hyperbolic and exponential discounting to estimate patience and the correlation between patience and (a) modern human capital, (b) personal affluence, and (c) age. Levels of impatience in Tsimane’ society are higher than in Western societies. We find a strong negative correlation between schooling and impatience and a weaker, but still negative, correlation between impatience and modern human-capital skills. We find mixed support for (b), probably because of sharing and reciprocity. We also find mixed support for (c), probably because of a truncated sample and measurement error of the age variable. We discuss areas for future research to encourage anthropologists to contribute to the cross-cultural understanding of patience.


RITUAL GENDERED RELATIONSHIPS:
KINSHIP, MARRIAGE, MASTERY, AND MACHI MODES OF PERSONHOOD

Ana Mariella Bacigalupo
Department of Anthropology, SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14261-0005

I show how spiritual kinships ties, spiritual marriages, and relationships of mastery between Mapuche shamans (machi), animals, and spirits in initiation and healing rituals reflect historical ethnic and national relationships, social and gender dynamics, and complex understandings of personhood. Machi’s spiritual relationships are shaped by the gendered power dynamics of colonial mastery and domination, marriage and seduction, possession and ecstasy, and hierarchical kinship systems. These spiritual relationships reflect a complex understanding of personal consciousness in which machi are agents of their actions but at the same time share self with the spirits and are dominated by them. Machi gain varied forms of knowledge and power through the exchange of bodily substances as well as through spiritual means. In doing so, they offer a new perspective on current discussions among anthropologists about embodiment, ensoulment, and personhood.


 

FAILED GUARDIANSHIP OR FAILED METAPHORS IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON? PROBLEMS WITH “IMAGINED ECO-COMMUNITIES” AND OTHER METAPHORS AND MODELS FOR THE AMAZON PEASANTRIES

Richard Pace
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, P.O. Box 10, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132

This article examines the discourse on rainforest guardianship in the Brazilian Amazon with a focus on the traditional peasantries. After presenting examples of alleged guardianship failures from research conducted in Gurupá, Pará, I analyze the principal metaphors and models of behavior used in the popular and social science literature to interpret the actions of the Amazon peasantries (space apart; dysfunctional moral model; subversive model; guardian model; and self-interest model). I conclude by suggesting an analytic framework based on variables of time span and group size to assess the fit between metaphors, models, and behavior.


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