APPROACHES TO EXPLAINING "TRUTH" AND "DECEPTION" IN
Department of Anthropology, University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556
article identifies five approaches through which I have attempted to
understand the topic of deception and truth. (The “topic” itself
changes along with the frame, however.) It traces an intellectual journey
through anthropological explanation, tacking back and forth among views
that (1) deception in public life is prevalent in China because of
a particular set of assumptions about language use and interaction,
(2) deception is conceived more honestly in China than in, say, the
U.S., (3) deception is prevalent and lamented in contemporary China,
and its historic particulars must be considered in evaluating the newness
of what is considered a problem, (4) deception occurs throughout human
societies but with varying degrees of concern and frequency, and (5)
deception is a fundamental part of the human capacity for language,
though all societies struggle between the ease of deception and the
desire for honesty and trust.
CAPITAL OR SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS? A
CRITIQUE OF KIBBUTZ STRATIFICATION
Western Galilee Academic College, Israel
Kibbutz Gan Shmuel, Mobile Post Hefer, Israel 38810
Why did six decades of kibbutz studies not discover the existence
of complex social stratification? This curious blindness is explained
by the dominance of a coalition in the study of this complex social
field, which includes both kibbutzim and federative organizations.
The uniqueness of kibbutzim enabled this coalition to perpetuate
a series of partial truisms, including a supposed lack of stratification.
Critics have exposed some degree of status differentiation but ignored
the primary evidence of stratification and missed its true extent.
The author’s desire to address his own society’s problems
led him to engage in a “long effort applied to oneself which
[converted] . . . one’s whole view of . . . the social world” (Bourdieu
1990:16), and this view exposed the true extent of stratification
in this social field. Thus, the motivation to reform the kibbutz
led to a level of understanding which traditional academic research
had not achieved, supporting Whyte’s (1992) assertion that
social scientists must seek social theories for action, not for pure
knowledge, and Wallerstein’s (2004) thesis that division of
the social sciences and humanities into separate disciplines hinders
CREATION OF A MAPUCHE SORCERER: SEXUAL AMBIVALENCE,
THE COMMODIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE, AND THE COVETING OF WEALTH
Ana Mariella Bacigalupo
Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo
380 MFAC Ellicott Complex, Buffalo, NY 14261-0005
I analyze Jorge’s case as paradigmatic of Mapuche sorcery in Chile
because he epitomizes many of the contradictory ways in which Mapuche
perceive and categorize people they believe embody evil and threaten
sociality. Capitalist consumption and individual success are both desired
by Mapuche and criticized as antithetical to spirituality, morality,
and community values. Mapuche see sorcerers as people who (a) draw on
older Mapuche notions of ambivalent shamanic powers rather than on Catholic
moralities; (b) challenge local sociopolitical hierarchies and communal
egalitarian ideals; (c) accumulate wealth and prestige through engagement
with modern beliefs and practices, self-proclaimed political and religious
roles, capitalism, and foreign influences; (d) are excessively poor or
wealthy; (e) challenge dominant Chilean gender norms and are suspected
of being sexually “deviant”; (f) challenge Mapuche norms
of sociality through aggression, individualism, and amorality; and (g)
commodify indigenous knowledge for their own benefit rather than that
of the community. I show that sorcery engenders change because it is
linked to fractures that develop within the community when people take
different positions in relation to modernization, capitalism, and foreign
influence. I show how the “traditionalizing” of Mapuche sorcery
operates simultaneously with its modernization and how both were played
out in Machi Jorge’s life and practice.
RELATIONS AND THE“TRILOGY” IN IBIBIO KINSHIP: THE CASE
IMMIGRANTS IN AKPABUYO (EFIKLAND), NIGERIA
Joseph O. Charles
Department of Sociology, University of Calabar
The paper discusses cultural continuity and change in kinship relations
involving ayeyin (grandchild), ukod (in-law), and imaan (blood brother)
relationships among Ibibio immigrants in Efikland. Mixed marriages involving
the Efik hosts and Ibibio immigrants are also examined in relation to
this “trinity.” The trinity constitutes a cultural fulcrum
upon which Ibibio kinship, ethnic identity, and intergroup relations
revolve. Infraction of its tenets is supernaturally sanctioned. Social
change seems to have affected the three kinship relations and their contents
only minimally, even among Ibibio immigrants in distant Akpabuyo in Efikland,
in spite of several problems experienced in the process of living together.
When two or more groups from different sociocultural backgrounds interact,
people are more predisposed to abandon or significantly modify aspects
of their culture that are not supernaturally protected, and so do not
threaten their existence or survival as individuals and as a corporate
entity. To break the normative expectations of the trinity inside or
outside Ibibioland is to destroy Ibibio ethnic identity.
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