JOURNAL of 
ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Volume 61, Number 4, Abstracts

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THE SEVENTY-YEAR ITCH: CONTROVERSIES OVER HUMAN ANTIQUITY AND THEIR RESOLUTION

David J. Meltzer
Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX 75275-0336

Several major turning points in the study of human prehistory have occurred at almost precisely 70 year intervals: from the initial establishment of a deep human antiquity in Europe in the late 1850s (at Brixham Cave and in the Somme River Valley) to the demonstration in the late 1920s at Folsom that American prehistory reached into the Pleistocene (albeit not very far) to the realization in the late 1990s, based on evidence from Monte Verde, that there was a still-earlier, pre-Clovis presence in the Americas. It is unlikely that the cyclical nature of these episodes is anything more than an odd coincidence. Still, there are patterns to those cycles of controversy and resolution beyond their timing that tell us a great deal about the evolution of and revolution in scientific knowledge. Moreover, in comparing these episodes, and the differences that emerge from that comparison, we can see clearly how much (and how little) archaeology has changed over the past two centuries.


THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE LAST
HUNTER-GATHERERS AND THE FIRST FARMERS
IN SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: THE BASQUE PERSPECTIVE

Alfonso Alday Ruiz
Departamento de Geografía, Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad del País Vasco,
01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

The dynamism of the Mesolithic in the Iberian peninsula offers new perspectives for the study of the process of Neolithization. In particular, in the Basque region we observe in Early Holocene times a well-established population that received and adopted Neolithic innovations. The archaeological elements clearly indicate cultural continuity across the transition; here we deal with those related to territoriality, economy, chronology, and lithic and ceramic industries. Whatever the mechanisms by which Neolithic innovations were accessed, these changes were accepted by autochthonous groups that in turn adapted them according to own their tastes and technologies (e.g., with regard to lithic manufacture and pottery decoration). The model presented here is in clear opposition to the “Mediterranean Cardial colonization” model: we do not need to resort to massive demographic movements to understand the progress of the Neolithic within the Iberian peninsula.

 


A SENSE OF PLACE, A PLACE OF SENSES: LAND AND A LANDSCAPE IN THE WEST OF IRELAND

Adrian Peace
Discipline of Anthropology, University of Adelaide
Australia 5005

One of the analytic points made about “contested spaces” is that they can bring to the fore the tacit cultural understandings and unexamined ideological frameworks which, precisely by virtue of their being tacit and unexamined, are integral to the routine flow of everyday life. This paper amplifies the proposition ethnographically by selectively examining an extended conflict over the Irish state’s intention to build an interpretive center at Mullaghmore, a mountain in the west of Ireland. It is argued that at one level local people were at odds over whether the mountain was land or a landscape, whilst at another level they were divided over appropriate ways of living in this peripheral setting in the final decade of the twentieth century. It was only in the process of contesting Mullaghmore as space, however, that these cultural differences and ideological divisions became explicit and open to public critique.

 
PARTIAL TRUTHS AND GENDERED HISTORIES: RUTH BUNZEL IN AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGY

Brigittine M. French
Grinnell College, Department of Anthropology
1118 Park Street, Grinnell, IA 50112

This essay pays tribute to Ruth L. Bunzel, a pioneering woman anthropologist, marginal academician, and prolific ethnographer. It argues for a new appreciation of the multiple links tying early anthropologists to the history of our discipline by exploring these links in relation both to methodological frameworks in the past and theoretical concerns at present. This essay makes the case that the past significance and present pertinence of Bunzel’s work are interrelated, by showing that Bunzel’s connection with current experimental and feminist ethnography emerged from her struggles to adjust methodological norms of the times to the situated demands of her ethnography in Chichicastenango, Guatemala.


BOOK REVIEWS 

The Human Fossil Record, Vol. 4. Craniodental Morphology of Early Hominids (Genera Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Orrorin), and Overview, by Jeffrey H. Schwartz and Ian Tattersall. Reviewed by Osbjorn M. Pearson.

Stránská skála: Origins of the Upper Paleolithic in the Brno Basin, Moravia, Czech Republic, Jirí Svoboda and Ofer Bar-Yosef, eds. Reviewed by Lawrence Guy Straus.

After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20,000–5,000 BC, by Steven Mithen. Reviewed by Peter Mitchell.

Saharan Rock Art: Archaeology of Tassilian Pastoralist Iconography, by Augustin F. C. Holl. Reviewed by Elena A. A. Garcea.

The Pottery of Santa Ana Pueblo
, by Francis H. Harlow, Duane Anderson, and Dwight P. Lanmon. Reviewed by Mark T. Bahti.

Hopi Oral Tradition and the Archaeology of Identity, by Wesley Bernardini. Reviewed by Kurt F.Anschuetz

Plains Earthlodges: Ethnographic and Archaeological Perspectives, Donna C. Roper and Elizabeth P. Pauls, eds. Reviewed by Patricia A.Gilman.

The Archaeology of the Colonized, by Michael Given. Reviewed by Randall H. McGuire.

European Metals in Native Hands: Rethinking Technological Change, 1640–1683, by Kathleen L. Ehrhardt. Reviewed by David Killick.

Processual Archaeology: Exploring Analytical Strategies, Frames of Reference and Culture Process, Amber L. Johnson, ed.Reviewed by Lawrence G. Straus.

Understanding Early Classic Copan, Ellen E. Bell, Marcello A. Canuto, and Robert J. Sharer, eds. Reviewed by Norman Hammond.

Continuity and Change in Text and Image at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico: A Study of the Inscriptions, Iconography, and Architecture at a Late Classic to Early Postclassic Maya Site, by Erik Boot. Reviewed by Prudence M. Rice.

Ephraim George Squier and the Development of American Anthropology, by Terry A. Barnhart. Reviewed by Don Fowler.

A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians, Thomas Biolsi, ed. Reviewed by Maureen Trudelle Schwarz.

Embedded Symmetries: Natural and Cultural, Dorothy K. Washburn, ed. Reviewed by Richard J. Parmentier.

Weaving a Legacy: Indian Baskets and the People of Owens Valley, California, by Sharon E. Dean, Peggy S. Ratcheson, Judith W. Finger, Ellen F. Daus, with Craig D. Bates. Reviewed by J. M. Adovasio.

Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn from It, by Robert Borofsky. Reviewed by Michael F. Brown.

Why Suyá Sing. A Musical Anthropology of an Amazonian People, by Anthony Seeger. Reviewed by Philip K. Bock.

Making Indigenous Citizens: Identity, Development, and Multicultural Activism in Peru, by María Elena García. Reviewed by Ricardo Godoy.

Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial Societies, by Frederic L. Pryor. Reviewed by Timothy Earle.



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