SEVENTY-YEAR ITCH: CONTROVERSIES OVER HUMAN ANTIQUITY AND THEIR
David J. Meltzer
Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX 75275-0336
major turning points in the study of human prehistory have occurred
at almost precisely 70 year intervals: from the initial establishment
of a deep human antiquity in Europe in the late 1850s (at Brixham
Cave and in the
Somme River Valley) to the demonstration in the late 1920s at Folsom
prehistory reached into the Pleistocene (albeit not very far) to
the realization in the late 1990s, based on evidence from Monte Verde,
was a still-earlier, pre-Clovis presence in the Americas. It is unlikely
that the cyclical
nature of these episodes is anything more than an odd coincidence.
there are patterns
to those cycles of controversy and resolution beyond their timing
that tell us a great
deal about the evolution of and revolution in scientific knowledge.
comparing these episodes, and the differences that emerge from that
can see clearly how much (and how little) archaeology has changed
over the past two centuries.
TRANSITION BETWEEN THE LAST
HUNTER-GATHERERS AND THE FIRST FARMERS
IN SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: THE BASQUE PERSPECTIVE
Alfonso Alday Ruiz
Departamento de Geografía, Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad
del País Vasco,
01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
The dynamism of the Mesolithic in the Iberian peninsula offers new
perspectives for the study of the process of Neolithization. In particular,
in the Basque region we observe in Early Holocene times a well-established
population that received and adopted Neolithic innovations. The archaeological
clearly indicate cultural continuity across the transition; here
with those related to territoriality, economy, chronology, and lithic
industries. Whatever the mechanisms by which Neolithic innovations
these changes were accepted by autochthonous groups that in turn
them according to own their tastes and technologies (e.g., with regard
manufacture and pottery decoration). The model presented here is
in clear opposition
to the “Mediterranean Cardial colonization” model: we
do not need to resort to massive demographic movements to understand
of the Neolithic within the Iberian peninsula.
SENSE OF PLACE, A PLACE OF SENSES: LAND AND A LANDSCAPE
IN THE WEST OF IRELAND
Discipline of Anthropology, University of Adelaide
One of the analytic points made about “contested spaces” is
that they can bring to the fore the tacit cultural understandings and
unexamined ideological frameworks which, precisely by virtue of their
being tacit and unexamined,
are integral to the routine flow of everyday life. This paper amplifies
ethnographically by selectively examining an extended conflict over the
intention to build an interpretive center at Mullaghmore, a mountain
in the west of Ireland. It is argued that at one level local
people were at odds over whether the mountain was land or a landscape,
whilst at another
level they were divided over appropriate ways of living in this peripheral
the final decade of the twentieth century. It was only in the process
Mullaghmore as space, however, that these cultural differences and ideological
became explicit and open to public critique.
TRUTHS AND GENDERED HISTORIES: RUTH BUNZEL IN AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGY
Brigittine M. French
Grinnell College, Department of Anthropology
1118 Park Street, Grinnell,
This essay pays tribute to Ruth L. Bunzel, a pioneering woman anthropologist,
marginal academician, and prolific ethnographer. It argues for a new
appreciation of the multiple links tying early anthropologists to the
history of our discipline by exploring these links in relation both to
methodological frameworks in the past and theoretical concerns at present.
makes the case that the past significance and present pertinence of Bunzel’s
work are interrelated, by showing that Bunzel’s connection with
current experimental and feminist ethnography emerged from her struggles
methodological norms of the times to the situated demands of her ethnography
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Hopi Oral Tradition and the Archaeology of Identity, by
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The Archaeology of the Colonized, by Michael Given. Reviewed
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European Metals in Native Hands: Rethinking Technological Change,
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A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians, Thomas
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Embedded Symmetries: Natural and Cultural, Dorothy
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Weaving a Legacy: Indian Baskets and the People of Owens Valley,
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Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn from
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Why Suyá Sing. A Musical Anthropology of an Amazonian
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Making Indigenous Citizens: Identity, Development, and Multicultural
Activism in Peru, by María Elena García. Reviewed
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Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial
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