JOURNAL of 
ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Volume 62, Number 2, Abstracts

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ROBERT S. SANTLEY
October 6, 1948 – March 23, 2006

Robert Santley, Professor of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico, died in his sleep after a long series of illnesses. Publishing until the very last, he was an extraordinarily prolific and important scholar of Mesoamerican complex societies who left a legacy of books, articles in prestigious journals, significant chapters in edited volumes, book reviews, and technical reports, as well as unpublished manuscripts that hopefully will be published without delay. Santley also leaves a legacy of excellent former students who became his valued colleagues, collaborators, and friends. His complex legacy includes memories of a brilliant mind, a quirky personality, a generous spirit, an exasperatingly stubborn streak, a love of life wedded to a morbid destiny.



WILLIAM WHITE HOWELLS
&
NICHOLAS SHACKLETON

The science of humankind recently lost two towering figures: Professor Sir Nicholas Shackleton of Cambridge University and Professor William White Howells of Harvard University. Having been privileged to know both of these truly eminent scholars, I do not want to let their passing go unnoticed in the pages of JAR. They both made major contributions to how we understand the big picture of paleoanthropology, sensu lato.


FROM SPEARS TO M-16s
Testing the Imbalance of Power Hypothesis
among the Enga

Polly Wiessner
Department of Anthropology, University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT

Major works on warfare in noncentralized societies have suggested that warfare is spurred by imbalances of power. Intergroup aggression is seen as predatory and aimed at dominance and acquisition (Chagnon 1988; Manson and Wrangham 1991; Meggitt 1977), that is, total warfare conducted with limited means (Keeley 1996). Here it is argued that the imbalance of power hypothesis overlooks the importance of intergroup ties for human production, reproduction, and exchange. An alternate “balance of power” hypothesis is presented: that warfare in simple societies is largely about retaliation to establish a balance of power with allies and enemies so that intergroup social and economic exchange can flow. Data from the Enga of Papua New Guinea are used to examine both hypotheses, concentrating on the motives behind warfare, male coalitionary dynamics, and the outcomes of warfare among the Enga during a 300-year period of rapid change from the introduction of the sweet potato until the adoption of modern high-powered weapons.


LARGE-SCALE RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION
AND POLITICAL CENTRALIZATION
A Case Study from Ancient Korea

Prof. Bong W. Kang
Department of Cultural Resources Studies, Gyeongju University and Director, Gyeongju University Museum
Republic of Korea

The relationship between centralized political authority and the construction of large-scale irrigation systems has been a major research topic in both anthropology and archaeology for many decades. One of the objects of this research has been to determine whether large-scale irrigation works were a cause or a result of political centralization. Some scholars (e.g., Wittfogel) have argued that construction of such projects played a critical role in the emergence of centralized, bureaucratic social structures. Others believe that large-scale irrigation works were constructed only after a centralized government emerged, and that before this, local people managed relatively small-scale cooperative irrigation works without intervention of a centralized political authority. This paper argues that large-scale reservoirs were constructed only after and because of the appearance of centralized political organization, in this case, the Silla Kingdom in ancient Korea.


CULTURAL BORDERS, HYBRIDIZATION, AND A SENSE OF BOUNDARIES IN THAILAND, MEXICO, AND ISRAEL

Baruch Shimoni
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Israel

Understanding processes of cultural border-crossing and hybridization in today’s globalizing world requires that we learn the orientation of people toward their cultural borders. This orientation is defined in this paper as a “sense of boundaries.” Cultural border-crossing, hybridization, and a sense of boundaries are exemplified here by case studies of the local company offices in Thailand, Mexico, and Israel of two global corporations headquartered in Sweden and the United States.


THE MANY MANIPULATIONS OF MORTY MOUSE
Children’s Stories and the Parental Encouragement
of Altruism

Craig T. Palmer
University of Missouri–Columbia, Department of Anthropology
Columbia, MO

Jennice Wright
Auxvasse School District, MO

Scott A.Wright
Columbia School District, MO

Chris Cassidy and Todd L. VanPool
Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri–Columbia

Kathryn Coe
Mel and Enid Zuckerman Arizona College of Public Health, Arizona Cancer Center
University of Arizona

Most analyses of children’s stories share the assumption that stories are told to children to influence their behavior. This paper explores how the analysis of stories can provide insight into social strategies used by people interacting within their cultural context. To demonstrate the potential of this approach, we created multiple versions of an original children’s story to explore attitudes of college students toward the form of social interaction known as reciprocal altruism. Some versions portrayed the protagonist of the story as following a tit-for-tat strategy, while in other versions the protagonist was altruistic toward all the other characters regardless of their past behavior. Subjects read one of the versions and rated it in terms of how likely they would be to read it to a child of the appropriate age. The highest rated version involved the protagonist being altruistic even to characters that had cheated in the past. We discuss this finding and suggest future applications of this methodology.


BOOK REVIEWS 

Kevin D. Hunt: The Cultured Chimpanzee: Reflections on Cultural Primatology, by William McGrew

Stephen R. Frost: Virtual Reconstruction: A Primer in Computer-Assisted Paleontology and Biomedicine, by Christoph P. E. Zollikofer and Marcia S. Ponce de León

Robert S. Walker: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, Richard B. Lee and Richard Daly, eds.

Randall White: The Old World Paleolithic and the Development of a National Collection, by Michael D. Petraglia and Richard Potts

Lawrence G. Straus: Comportement des hommes du paléolithique moyen et supérieur en Europe: Territoires et milieux, by Denis Vialou, Josette Renault-Miskovsky, and Marylène Patou-Mathis, eds.

Paul G. Bahn: The Cradle of Humanity: Prehistoric Art and Culture, Stuart Kendall, ed.

Lawrence G. Straus: Arte Rupestre en la Communidad Valenciana, Rafael Martínez Valle, ed.

David Lubell: The Mesolithic of the Atlantic Façade: Proceedings of the Santander Symposium, Manuel R. González Morales and Geoffrey A. Clark, eds.

Madonna L. Moss: The Hoko River Archaeological Site Complex: The Rockshelter (45CA21), 1,000–100 BP, by Dale R. Croes

Lynn H. Gamble: The Island Chumash: Behavioral Ecology of a Maritime Society, by Douglas J. Kennett

Teresa E. Steele: The Exploitation and Cultural Importance of Sea Mammals, Gregory G. Monks, ed.

Alan J. Osborn: Indigenous Use and Management of Marine Resources, Nobuhiro Kishigami and James M. Savelle, eds.

Jennifer F. Ahlfeldt: La Joyanca (La Libertad, Guatemala): Antigua Ciudad Maya del Noroeste del Petén, by Marie-Charlotte Arnauld, Véronique Breuil-Martínez, and Erick Ponciano Alvarado

Peter D. Harrison: Ancient Maya Commoners, by Jon C. Lohse and Fred Valdez, Jr.

Pamela L. Geller: The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan, by Leonardo López Luján

Lidio M. Valdez: Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology 1, Charles Stanish, Amanda B. Cohen, and Mark S. Aldenderfer, eds.

Kenneth E. Sassaman: Gulf Coast Archaeology: The Southeastern United States and Mexico, Nancy Marie White, ed.

Barbara J. Mills: Mimbres Painted Pottery, by J. J. Brody

Harry Schafer: Painted by a Distant Hand: Mimbres Pottery from the American Southwest, by Steven A. LeBlanc

Jennie R. Joe: Tall Woman: The Life Story of Rose Mitchell, a Navajo Woman, c. 1874–1977, Charlotte J. Frisbie, ed., and Navajo Blessingway Singer: The Autobiography of Frank Mitchell, 1881–1967, Charlotte Johnson Frisbie and David Park McAllester, eds.

Patricia Mohammed: Callaloo Nation: Metaphors of Race and Religious Identity among South Asians in Trinidad, by Aisha Khan

Eva Marie Garroutte: Ties that Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom, by Tiya Miles

 



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