6, 1948 – March 23, 2006
Robert Santley, Professor of Anthropology at the University
of New Mexico, died in his sleep after a long series of illnesses.
Publishing until the very last, he was an extraordinarily prolific
and important scholar of Mesoamerican complex societies who left a
legacy of books, articles in prestigious journals, significant chapters
in edited volumes, book reviews, and technical reports, as well as
unpublished manuscripts that hopefully will be published without delay.
Santley also leaves a legacy of excellent former students who became
his valued colleagues, collaborators, and friends. His complex legacy
includes memories of a brilliant mind, a quirky personality, a generous
spirit, an exasperatingly stubborn streak, a love of life wedded to
a morbid destiny.
The science of humankind recently lost two towering figures:
Professor Sir Nicholas Shackleton of Cambridge University and Professor
William White Howells of Harvard University. Having been privileged
to know both of these truly eminent scholars, I do not want to let their
passing go unnoticed in the pages of JAR. They both made major contributions
to how we understand the big picture of paleoanthropology, sensu lato.
SPEARS TO M-16s
Testing the Imbalance of Power Hypothesis
Department of Anthropology, University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT
Major works on warfare in noncentralized societies have suggested that
warfare is spurred by imbalances of power. Intergroup aggression is seen
as predatory and aimed at dominance and acquisition (Chagnon 1988; Manson
and Wrangham 1991; Meggitt 1977), that is, total warfare conducted with
limited means (Keeley 1996). Here it is argued that the imbalance of
power hypothesis overlooks the importance of intergroup ties for human
production, reproduction, and exchange. An alternate “balance of
is presented: that warfare in simple societies is largely about retaliation
to establish a balance of power with allies and enemies so that intergroup
social and economic exchange can flow. Data from the Enga of Papua New
Guinea are used to examine both hypotheses, concentrating on the motives
behind warfare, male coalitionary dynamics, and the outcomes of warfare
among the Enga during a 300-year period of rapid change from the introduction
of the sweet potato until the adoption of modern high-powered weapons.
AND POLITICAL CENTRALIZATION
A Case Study from Ancient Korea
Prof. Bong W. Kang
Department of Cultural Resources Studies, Gyeongju University and Director,
Gyeongju University Museum
Republic of Korea
The relationship between centralized political authority and the construction
of large-scale irrigation systems has been a major research topic in
both anthropology and archaeology for many decades. One of the objects
of this research has been to determine whether large-scale irrigation
works were a cause or a result of political centralization. Some scholars
(e.g., Wittfogel) have argued that construction of such projects played
a critical role in the emergence of centralized, bureaucratic social
structures. Others believe that large-scale irrigation works were constructed
only after a centralized government emerged, and that before this, local
people managed relatively small-scale cooperative irrigation works without
intervention of a centralized political authority. This paper argues
that large-scale reservoirs were constructed only after and because of
the appearance of centralized political organization, in this case, the
Silla Kingdom in ancient Korea.
BORDERS, HYBRIDIZATION, AND A SENSE OF BOUNDARIES IN THAILAND,
MEXICO, AND ISRAEL
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Understanding processes of cultural border-crossing and hybridization
in today’s globalizing world requires that we learn the orientation
of people toward their cultural borders. This orientation is defined
in this paper as a “sense
of boundaries.” Cultural border-crossing, hybridization, and a
sense of boundaries are exemplified here by case studies of the local
company offices in Thailand, Mexico, and Israel of two global corporations
headquartered in Sweden and the United States.
MANY MANIPULATIONS OF MORTY MOUSE
Children’s Stories and the Parental Encouragement
Craig T. Palmer
University of Missouri–Columbia, Department of Anthropology
Auxvasse School District, MO
Columbia School District, MO
Chris Cassidy and Todd L. VanPool
Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri–Columbia
Mel and Enid Zuckerman Arizona College of Public Health, Arizona Cancer
University of Arizona
Most analyses of children’s stories share
the assumption that stories are told to children to influence their behavior.
This paper explores how the analysis of stories can provide insight into
social strategies used by people interacting within their cultural context.
To demonstrate the potential of this approach, we created multiple versions
of an original children’s
story to explore attitudes of college students toward the form of social
interaction known as reciprocal altruism. Some versions portrayed the
protagonist of the story as following a tit-for-tat strategy, while in
other versions the protagonist was altruistic toward all the other characters
regardless of their past behavior. Subjects read one of the versions
and rated it in terms of how likely they would be to read it to a child
of the appropriate age. The highest rated version involved the protagonist
being altruistic even to characters that had cheated in the past. We
discuss this finding and suggest future applications of this methodology.
Kevin D. Hunt: The Cultured Chimpanzee: Reflections on Cultural Primatology,
by William McGrew
Stephen R. Frost: Virtual Reconstruction: A Primer in Computer-Assisted
Paleontology and Biomedicine, by Christoph P. E. Zollikofer and Marcia
S. Ponce de León
Robert S. Walker: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers,
Richard B. Lee and Richard Daly, eds.
Randall White: The Old World Paleolithic and the Development of a National
Collection, by Michael D. Petraglia and Richard Potts
Lawrence G. Straus: Comportement des hommes du paléolithique
moyen et supérieur en Europe: Territoires et milieux, by Denis
Vialou, Josette Renault-Miskovsky, and Marylène Patou-Mathis,
Paul G. Bahn: The Cradle of Humanity: Prehistoric Art and Culture, Stuart
Lawrence G. Straus: Arte Rupestre en la Communidad Valenciana, Rafael
Martínez Valle, ed.
David Lubell: The Mesolithic of the Atlantic Façade: Proceedings
of the Santander Symposium, Manuel R. González Morales and Geoffrey
A. Clark, eds.
Madonna L. Moss: The Hoko River Archaeological Site Complex: The Rockshelter
(45CA21), 1,000–100 BP, by Dale R. Croes
Lynn H. Gamble: The Island Chumash: Behavioral Ecology of a Maritime
Society, by Douglas J. Kennett
Teresa E. Steele: The Exploitation and Cultural Importance of Sea Mammals,
Gregory G. Monks, ed.
Alan J. Osborn: Indigenous Use and Management of Marine Resources, Nobuhiro
Kishigami and James M. Savelle, eds.
Jennifer F. Ahlfeldt: La Joyanca (La Libertad, Guatemala): Antigua Ciudad
Maya del Noroeste del Petén, by Marie-Charlotte Arnauld, Véronique
Breuil-Martínez, and Erick Ponciano Alvarado
Peter D. Harrison: Ancient Maya Commoners, by Jon C. Lohse and Fred
Pamela L. Geller: The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan,
by Leonardo López Luján
Lidio M. Valdez: Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology 1, Charles Stanish,
Amanda B. Cohen, and Mark S. Aldenderfer, eds.
Kenneth E. Sassaman: Gulf Coast Archaeology: The Southeastern United
States and Mexico, Nancy Marie White, ed.
Barbara J. Mills: Mimbres Painted Pottery, by J. J. Brody
Harry Schafer: Painted by a Distant Hand: Mimbres Pottery from the American
Southwest, by Steven A. LeBlanc
Jennie R. Joe: Tall Woman: The Life Story of Rose Mitchell, a Navajo
Woman, c. 1874–1977, Charlotte J. Frisbie, ed., and Navajo Blessingway
Singer: The Autobiography of Frank Mitchell, 1881–1967, Charlotte
Johnson Frisbie and David Park McAllester, eds.
Patricia Mohammed: Callaloo Nation: Metaphors of Race and Religious
Identity among South Asians in Trinidad, by Aisha Khan
Eva Marie Garroutte: Ties that Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family
in Slavery and Freedom, by Tiya Miles