Volume 63, Number 2, Abstracts

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F. Clark Howell: An Appreciation

Leslie G. Freeman, University of Chicago
Susan Tax Freeman, University of Illinois at Chicago

F. Clark Howell, who died March 10, 2007, aged 81, after a three-month struggle against cancer, was part of our lives for about half a century—and of Susan’s for even longer. Susan’s father, Sol Tax, was a mentor to Clark as a graduate student at the University of Chicago (he received his Ph.D. in 1953) and when he was brought back to join the Chicago faculty in 1955, after serving two years on the anatomy faculty at Washington University in St. Louis.

Francis Clark Howell (1925–2007): America’s Paleoanthropologist

Lawrence G. Straus, Editor

The place of the Neandertals in human evolution; the Acheulean sites of Isimila (Tanzania) as well as Torralba and Ambrona (Spain); the Australopithecines of the Omo Valley (Ethiopia); Yarimburgaz Cave (Turkey); the Leakey Foundation. These are among the signal areas in which Clark Howell made specific, major contributions to the interdisciplinary field of paleoanthropology, which he and J. Desmond Clark together helped found with their publication of a special issue of American Anthropologist in 1966.

Marjorie Ferguson Lambert (1908–2006)

Shelby J. Tisdale
Museum of Indian Arts & Culture and Laboratory of Anthropology
Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe

Marjorie Ferguson Lambert, 98, died on December 16, 2006, in Santa Fe, NM. Born in Colorado Springs on June 13, 1908, she earned a BA in Social Anthropology from Colorado College in 1930 and an MA in archaeology and anthropology from the University of New Mexico in 1931.

New Wine in New Bottles: Prospects and Pitfalls of Cultural Primatology

W. C. McGrew
Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biological
Anthropology, University of Cambridge

KEY WORDS: Chimpanzee; Cultural primatology; Material culture; Primatology;
Tool use

Cultural primatology has matured in recent years from natural history to ethnography to ethnology, but new techniques of analysis and interpretation are needed to deal with new findings. Studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) lead the way, both observationally in nature and experimentally in captivity. New data on elementary technology employed in extractive foraging (e.g., ant dipping) show that prevailing ideas of environmental versus cultural determinism are simplistic. Cultural primatology yields both behavioral diversity and universals. As with humans, cultural change can be maladaptive (e.g., pestle pounding, crop raiding) as well as adaptive. The future of cultural primatology depends on the ongoing survival of wild populations of primates.

Deciphering North American Pleistocene Extinctions

Donald K. Grayson
Department of Anthropology, University of Washington

KEY WORDS: Climate change; Eurasia; North America; Overkill; Pleistocene extinctions

The debate over the cause of North American Pleistocene extinctions may be further from resolution than it has ever been in its 200-year history and is certainly more heated than it has ever been before. Here, I suggest that the reason for this may lie in the fact that paleontologists have not heeded one of the key biogeographic concepts that they themselves helped to establish: that histories of assemblages of species can be understood only be deciphering the history of each individual species within that assemblage. This failure seems to result from assumptions first made about the nature of the North American extinctions during the 1960s.

The Symbolic and Ethnic Aspects of Envy among a Teenek Community (Mexico)

Anath Ariel de Vidas
Centro de Estudios Mexicanos y Centroamericanos (CEMCA)

KEY WORDS: Cultural change; Envy; Ethnic identity; Mesoamerican cosmology; Mexican Indians; Symbolic anthropology; Teenek (Huastec)

Fear of envy plays a central role in the social interactions of a Teenek community in northeastern Mexico, as it influences the daily behavior of its members and inhibits the accumulation of material excess. In this paper, in addition to the socioeconomic explanation of this phenomenon, the symbolic approach to envy provides insights into certain aspects of the group’s sociality because the ramification of envy serves to demarcate the Teenek community. Thus, envy could also prove to be a cognitive means of defining an ethnic group.

On the Measure of Income and the Economic Unimportance of Social Capital: Evidence from a Native Amazonian Society of Farmers and Foragers

Ricardo Godoy
Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University

Victoria Reyes-García
Brandeis University and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Tomás Huanca
Brandeis University

William R. Leonard and Thomas McDade
Northwestern University

Susan Tanner
University of Georgia

Craig Seyfried
Brandeis University and the TAPS Bolivia Study Team

KEY WORDS: Amazon; Autarky; Bolivia; Income; Foragers; Horticulturalist;
Insurance; Tsimane’

Economists equate economic self-suffi ciency (autarky) with low income and stress the economic role of social capital as a form of self-insurance in poor rural areas of developing nations. In contrast, anthropologists speak of the “original affluence” of foragers and see social capital as serving economic and social roles. Economists do not work with highly autarkic peoples such as part- or full-time foragers, and cultural anthropologists have not provided formal, comprehensive estimates of income or of the monetary value of social capital in highly autarkic societies. Drawing on data from 611 adults of 244 households in 13 villages of a highly autarkic society of swidden farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane’, we present measures of personal income and of the monetary value of social capital. Daily personal income reaches US $2.35– 3.52, which is above the international poverty line of US $1–2, on a par with the income in the rest of Bolivia, and three times higher than the income in the rest of rural Bolivia. The Tsimane’ do not have low income, at least not when compared with their rural neighbors. Social capital in the form of gifts and labor services received from the rest of the village accounted for a small share of daily personal income (<5%) and did not get activated to any great degree when people suffered a mishap. In sum, the study uncovers a more nuanced picture of well-being in a relatively autarkic society. People in such a society enjoy relative affluence, invest in social capital for social more than for economic reasons, but cope with adversity largely on their own.

BOOK Reviews 


Vicki Bentley-Condit: Evolution and Culture,
Stephen C. Levinson and Pierre Jaisson, eds.

Randall White: Pitture paleolitiche nelle Prealpi Venete: Grotta di Fumane Riparo Dalmeri,
Alberto Broglio and Giampaolo Dalmeri, eds.

Lawrence G. Straus: La Cueva de Ardales: Arte prehistórico y ocupación en el paleolítico superior: Estudios, 1985–2005,
by Pedro Cantalejo, Rafael Maura, María del Mar Espejo, Jose Ramos, Javier Medianero, Antonio Aranda, and Juan Jose Durán

Lawrence G. Straus: De la pierre à l’homme. Essai sur une paléoanthropologie Solutréenne,
by Marc Tiffagom

Lawrence G. Straus: El sílex en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica y Pirineo,Navarro
by Antonio Tarriño

Lawrence G. Straus: Transitions before The Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age,
Erella Hovers and Steven Kuhn, eds.

Teresa E. Steele: The Faunas of Hayonim Cave, Israel: A 200,000,Year Record of Paleolithic Diet, Demography, and Society,
by Mary C. Stiner

Achilles Gautier: Dogs and People in Social, Working, Economic or Symbolic Interaction,
Lynn M. Snyder and Elizabeth A. Moore, eds.

Daniel S. Amick: Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleoindian Bison Kill,
by David J. Meltzer

Julie C. Lowell: Southwest Archaeology in the Twentieth Century,
Linda S. Cordell and Don D. Fowler, eds.

George R. Milner: Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy,
by A. Martin Byers

Timothy R. Pauketat: Leadership and Polity in Mississippian Society,
Brian M. Butler and Paul D. Welch, eds.

Sarah B. Barber: Intermediate Elites in Pre-Columbian States and Empires,
Christina M. Elson and R. Alan Covey, eds.

Gair Tourtellot: Water and Ritual: The Rise and Fall of Classic Maya Rulers,
by Lisa J. Lucero

Carl J. Wendt: Farming, Hunting, and Fishing in the Olmec World,
by Amber M. VanDerwarker

John Edward Terrell: Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands,
by Ian Lilley

Michael W. Graves: Remote Possibilities,
by Jo Anne Van Tilburg

Deborah M. Pearsall: Ancient Starch Research,
Robin Torrence and Huw Barton, eds.

Kevin J. Crisman: X Marks the Spot: The Archaeology of Piracy,
Russell K. Skowroneck and Charles R. Ewen, eds.

Patrick A. McAllister: Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History,
by Frederick H. Smith

Karl W. Butzer: People and Nature: An Introduction to Human Ecological Relations,
by Emilio F. Moran

Enrique Lamadrid: Brown Eyed Children of the Sun: Lessons from the Chicano Movement, 1965–1975,
by George Mariscal

Laura McNamara: The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico,
by Joseph Masco

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