Volume 63, Number 4, Abstracts

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Behavioral Differences between Middle and Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens in the East Mediterranean Levant: The Roles of Intraspecific Competition and Dispersal from Africa

John J. Shea
Anthropology Department, Stony Brook University

KEY WORDS: Africa; Behavioral differences; Competition; Dispersal; Homo sapiens; Levant; Neandertals; Paleolithic

Archaeological, paleontological, and genetic evidence indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa around 200,000–150,000 years ago (200–150 kya). Behavioral differences between earlier and later Homo sapiens populations are clearly germane to research on the origins of uniquely derived (i.e., “modern”) human behavior. This paper examines evidence for behavioral differences between Middle (MP) and Upper Paleolithic (UP) Homo sapiens in the East Mediterranean Levant. Levantine archaeological assemblages associated with Homo sapiens between 130 and 75 kya and again between 45 and 25 kya show contrasts in settlement, subsistence, technology, and social organization. Recent explanations for these differences include technological-social evolution, neurogenetic mutation, population growth, and interspecific competition. These hypotheses are each critically examined. None accounts for the particular timing of the MP-UP transition, ca. 45 kya. A new hypothesis explains Middle vs. Upper Paleolithic behavioral differences among Levantine Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens as the result of intensified intraspecific competition among African Homo sapiens populations who dispersed into the Levant after a period of rapid climate change, 50–45 kya. This hypothesis contradicts the long-standing assumption of biological and cultural continuity across the MP-UP transition in the Levant.

Architecture and Identity at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona

Charles R. Riggs
Department of Anthropology, Fort Lewis College

KEY WORDS: Grasshopper Pueblo; Households; Identity; Migration; Pueblo architecture; U.S. Southwest

In the southwestern United States, Pueblo migration traditions hold the key to understanding the identity of migrants in what Bernardini (2005) calls “serial migrations.” Using data from Grasshopper Pueblo, this study assesses the concept of serial migration by focusing on four layers of identity: the community, the dual division between locals and non-locals, lineages, and households. These four layers of identity are explored by focusing on the building behaviors of these various groups as they settled into the Grasshopper community in the early part of the fourteenth century AD. This paper demonstrates that the concept of serial migration, combined with a focus on the architectural correlates of social group identity, helps to explain the formation of large aggregated communities in late Southwest prehistory.

Maneuvering between State, Nation, and Tradition: Palestinian Women in Israel Make Creative Applications of Polygyny

Amalia Sa’ar
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
University of Haifa

KEY WORDS: Gender morality; Israeli Palestinians; Polygyny; Social poetics

This paper presents ethnographic documentations of Israeli Palestinian “women without men,” who seek out married men and use the notion of polygyny to make moral sense of their non-normative heterosexual relationships. The women’s presentations of self are construed against popular attitudes to polygyny as practically negligible and morally anachronistic. Following a political-economic approach to gender as constructed, historical, and embedded in multiple structures of power, the cases are interpreted as providing a lens into the structural contradictions that inform the lives of Palestinians inside Israel. It is argued that the women’s uses of an explicitly traditional and patriarchal script of gender morality to legitimize lifestyles that are easily stigmatized as immoral have a quality of social poetics. These day-to-day subversions of norms expose the strategic nature of “big” power structures of state, nation, religion, and community.

Bad Habits and Prosthetic Performances: Negotiation of Individuality and Embodiment of Social Status in Australian Fishing

Tanya J. King
Deakin University, Australia

KEY WORDS: Embodied knowledge; Individuality; Industrial shark fishing; Masculinity; Performance; Prosthesis; Social status

Anthropological discussion of individuality, as a component of masculinity, has tended to focus on either the performance and championing of autonomy in the West (e.g., Kapferer) or the manner in which people in non-Western contexts become explicitly manifest through relationships with others (e.g., Strathern). In this paper, I consider an atypical example of masculine identity by describing intimate interpersonal relationships between Australian commercial shark boat skippers and their young deckhands. As in other Western fisheries (e.g., Icelandic), economic success and physical safety are promoted through synergism among fishers. In the Australian case, however, the degree of corporeal cooperation is so extreme that deckhands resemble living prostheses of their skipper, embodying their peripheral socio-productive status. I consider this bond in the context of the Australian ethos of masculinity, in which displays of “individuality” are key. However, for young deckhands, their prosthetic role can compromise their passage into manhood.

Book Reviews  

Review Essay by Fekri A. Hassan: Demography in Archaeology,
by Andrew Chamberlain

Jane Buikstra: The Social Archaeology of Funerary Remains,
Rebecca Gowland and Christopher Knüsel, eds.

R. Lee Lyman: Confronting Scale in Archaeology: Issues of Theory and Practice,
Gary Lock and Brian Leigh Molyneaux, eds.

Paul R. Mullins: The Archaeology of Class in Urban America,
by Stephen A. Mrozowski

Joe Watkins: The Ethics of Archaeology: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice,
Chris Scarre and Geoffrey Scarre, eds.

Melissa Powell: The Antiquities Act: A Century of American Archaeology, Historic Preservation, and Nature Conservation,
David Harmon, Francis P. McManamon, and Dwight T. Pitcaithley, eds.

David L. Browman: Measuring Time with Artifacts: A History of Methods in American Archaeology,
by R. Lee Lyman and Michael J. O’Brien

Paul G. Bahn: Writing Archaeology: Telling Stories about the Past,
by Brian Fagan

Stacie M. King: Space and Spatial Analysis in Archaeology,
Elizabeth C. Robertson, Jeffrey D. Seibert, Deepika C. Fernandez, and Marc U. Zender, eds.

Jon C. Lohse: Palaces and Power in the Americas: From Peru to the Northwest Coast,
Jessica Joyce Christie and Patricia Joan Sarro, eds.

Amber M. VanDerwarker: The Last Pescadores of Chimalhuacán, Mexico: An Archaeological Ethnography,
by Jeffrey R. Parsons

Lynn H. Gamble: The Prehistory of Baja California: Advances in the Archaeology of the Forgotten Peninsula,
Don Laylander and Jerry D. Moore, eds.

J. J. Brody: Secrets of Casas Grandes: Precolumbian Art and Archaeology of Northern Mexico,
Melissa S. Powell, ed.

Jane H. Hill: The Archaeology of Chaco Canyon: An Eleventh-Century Pueblo Regional Center,
Stephen H. Lekson, ed.

Maria S. Sprehn: Mimbres Society,
Valli S. Powell-Martí and Patricia A. Gilman, eds.

Patty Jo Watson: People of the Shoals: Stallings Culture of the Savannah River Valley,
by Kenneth E. Sassaman

Kit Nelson: The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC,
by David Wengrow

David Killick: Myth, Ritual and Metallurgy in Ancient Greece and Recent Africa,
by Sandra Blakely

Editors Note

Lawrence Guy Straus, Editor-in-Chief

As small, independent journals such as JAR struggle with the consequences of the digital revolution, one thing is clear: valid, credible, useful scholarship is not free—nor is its dissemination.

JAR, like most journals (perhaps even more so than some), has “gone digital,” while maintaining a high-quality, if no-frills, print edition. All issues (including JAR’s earlier title, the Southwestern Journal of Anthropology) are available electronically to subscribing institutions: current and recent issues through the University of Michigan Scholarly Publishing Offi ce and back issues through JSTOR. But, in order to survive, JAR must receive revenues for electronic distribution and cannot “give away” its copyrighted intellectual content in the form of pdfs. To do so might “open Pandora’s box,” eventually leading to the demise of the journal. It is an illusion that the results of high quality scholarship can be widely circulated for free. There are costs associated not only with traditional hard-copy publishing (printing, binding, mailing), but also with digital dissemination. Both share the costs of administering the flow of, and correspondence related to, manuscripts, including the acquisition of peer reviews, which are at the heart of scholarly publishing. Both types of publication share the costs of professional copy-editing and composition. Systematic billing, accounting, record-keeping, and copyright management must be paid for; Web sites have to be maintained and upgraded; journals must advertise to increase subscriptions. Book reviewing involves maintaining the database, correspondence and mailing costs, etc. “Anything goes” is not an appropriate model for high quality academic publishing.

JAR is a non-profi t operation, supported by subscriptions, copyright permission fees, and the University of New Mexico College of Arts & Sciences. Its costs are kept to a bare minimum. Since I raised subscription rates (modestly) when I took over as Editor, 13 years ago, there have been no increases (except to add postal surcharges for non-U.S. delivery). Rather than frequently raise the subscription prices, I have held the line. This is no longer possible, owing mainly to very significant postal rate increases that are especially harmful to small publishers, as well as printing charge increases and modest rises in copy-editing and design costs. With this issue, the basic hard-copy subscription rates for the U.S. are going to $60 for institutions and $35 for individuals. The full rate-list is available on the Web site I am sure you will understand that these modest increases are necessary. For your subscription price you will receive at least 600 ad-free pages of peer-reviewed research articles, the JAR Distinguished Lectures by eminent scholars, and timely book reviews—all spanning the diverse areas of anthropology worldwide. This is our pledge.

The kind of scholarly publishing that goes on in the Anglo-American world— based on rigorous peer-review and efforts to be objective in manuscript selection, as well as on seriousness and timeliness in meeting periodic deadlines—seems to be the envy of much of the academic world. This is my impression, derived from the increasing manuscript submissions (to JAR and to other journals for which I review articles) from foreign authors, who, in some cases, are under institutional or even governmental pressure to publish in high-impact, English-language journals. Ironically, this system, which seems generally to have worked well, is under pressure from the fl ood of non-traditional digital outlets. JAR intends to hold the line in terms of quality, while being supportive to authors from beyond the borders of the U.S. I urge you to support us.

Most sincerely and appreciatively, I wish to thank the staff (Ann Braswell, June-el Piper, Donna Carpio, and student employees Andrea Cooper, Char Peery, and Sean Bruna) for their diligent, professional work, and members of the JAR Editorial Board, Associate Editors, and the following generous, responsible colleagues for reviewing manuscripts during the past year:

N. Abdo
C. Adams
P. Bahn
L. Bakewell
D. Bauer
J. Benz
P. Bertocci
P. Bleed
D. Brown
D. Brugge
E. Cashdan
C. Castin
P. Castro
J. Cattelino
L. Cecil
M. Chaiken
M. Chibnik
J. Clottes
R. Covey
P. Crown
J. D’Altroy
R. Darnell
H. DeNike
D. Doyel
P. Draper
T. Ehlers
M. Ember
B. Fagan
G. Feinman
R. Flint
S. Flint
C. Gamble
J. Gatewood
A. Golbeck
K. Hawkes
D. Henry
B. Hewlett
R. Hitchcock
K. Hopper
L. Hudson
D. Kennett
P. Kitiarsa
L. Knight
S. Kowalewski
R. Lawless
J. Lowell
G. Marcus
R. Mason
E. Miksa
B. Mills
R. Moore
J. Morton
T. Naranjo
J. Nash
H. Neff
S. Ortner
P. Panopoulos
O. Pearson
M. Petraglia
A. Portes
N. Rapport
J. Ravesloot
S. Rodriguez
S. Ruddick
S. Russell
J. Sanchez
M. Schiffer
S. Schlanger
M. T. Sierra
K. Spielmann
G. Stocking
B. Tucker
M. Udvardy
L. Valdez
P. Villa
J. von Schwerin
N. Waguespack
J. Walther
P. Wiessner
T. Wynn

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