Volume 64, Number 1, Abstracts

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Rock Art: An Endangered Heritage Worldwide

Jean Clottes
French Ministry of Culture
Foix, France

Key Words: Heritage preservation; Rock art; World Heritage List

Abstract: The preservation of rock art, both as a cultural heritage and as an archaeological resource, is crucial. In addition to preserving the art, we must work to preserve the associated natural and cultural environments. Nondestructive recording of the physical attributes of the art must be accompanied by recording of the cultural aspects—the stories of the artists or their descendants (when available). Information from oral histories should be included (when appropriate). Archaeological data recovery in the immediate area should be considered to improve our understanding of the types of activities associated with the creation or continued use of the art. National and even worldwide research centers and data banks should be encouraged, as well as specialized coursework and university degrees. More rock art sites should be included on the World Heritage List, and nation-states should be encouraged to legislate and enforce protective measures. Following the lead of France and Spain, rock art can be meticulously reproduced in settings that are open to the public, affording better protection for the actual sites. Local communities must be afforded an economic stake in any programs to preserve rock art or increase cultural tourism.


Ancient Maritime Trade on Balsa Rafts: An Engineering Analysis

Leslie Dewan and Dorothy Hosler
Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Key Words: Balsa raft design; Ecuador; Maritime trade; Mesoamerica; Precolumbian

Abstract: By approximately 100 BC Ecuadorian traders had established maritime commercial routes extending from Chile to Colombia. Historical sources indicate that they transported their merchandise in large, ocean-going sailing rafts made of balsa logs. By about AD 700 the data show that Ecuadorian metalworking technology had reached the west coast of Mexico but remained absent in the region between Guerrero and lower Central America. Archaeologists have argued that this technology was most plausibly transmitted via balsa raft exchange routes. This article uses mathematical simulation of balsa rafts’ mechanical and material characteristics to determine whether these rafts were suitable vessels for long- distance travel. Our analysis shows that these rafts were fully functional sailing vessels that could have navigated between Ecuador and Mexico. This conclusion greatly strengthens the argument that Ecuadorian metallurgical technology and aspects of the metallurgical technologies of adjacent South American regions were transmitted from South America to western Mexico via maritime trade routes.


Inka Roads, Lines, and Rock Shrines: A Discussion of the Contexts of Trail Markers

Jessica Joyce Christie
School of Art and Design, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC

Key Words: Andes; Inka; Pilgrimages; Road system; Rock art; Sacred geography; Syncretism

Abstract: This essay discusses how Andean people have “constructed” nature with four categories of Inka rock wak’as (shrines) located on trails. Three groups consist of sculpted rocks on physical roads. The fourth category refers to the concept of extended zeq’es (radial lines and paths marked by shrines) which structured the natural and social environment of Cusco and probably of other Inka towns. I show that the Inka modified boulders on physical and conceptual roads and zeq’es for practical and symbolic reasons related, on the one hand, to the pan- Andean worship of mountains and, on the other hand, to a specifically Inka stone ideology made material in a politically conceptualized ideational landscape. The concept of extended zeq’es may provide a context for some poorly understood carved rocks in the Inka empire. Contemporary religious practices recreate some of these lines with regional pilgrimages and the scheduling of feast days. Part of these practices is the worship of holy images painted on sacred rocks, and Jesus is turned into a mountain deity. The essay places Inka stone trail markers in the wider context of an Andean identity informed by its sacred geography and culturally constructed processual Mexican Justice: Codified Law, Patronage, and the Regulation of Social Affairs in Guerrero, Mexico .

Mexican Justice: Codified Law, Patronage, and the Regulation of Social Affairs in Guerrero, Mexico

Chris Kyle
Department of Anthropology and Social Work
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL


William Yaworsky
University of Texas at Brownsville

Key Words: Cultural rights; Human rights; Law and politics; Mexico; Patronage relationships

Abstract: Social life in Mexico has long been regulated not by codified jural rules and the institutions of the state but by means of hierarchically structured patronage networks. This article illustrates the pervasiveness of patronage relationships by looking at the activities of a human rights advocacy organization operating in Chilapa, Guerrero. Though ostensibly committed to working through the jural rules and the institutions of the state, practical reality commonly intrudes and forces the organization to activate patronage ties in order to assist their clients. The article also explores the implications of patronage relationships for ongoing debates about the presumed irreconcilability of the state’s codified law and the customary law of indigenous communities.

Book Reviews  

Michael L. Cepek: I Foresee My Life: The Ritual Performance of Autobiography in an Amazonian Community,
by Suzanne Oakdale

Sawa Kurotani: Think Global, Fear Local: Sex, Violence, and Anxiety in Contemporary Japan,
by David Leheny

Elizabeth L. Krause: Sheltering Women: Negotiating Gender and Violence in Northern Italy,
by Sonja Plesset

Kia Lilly Caldwell: Battered Black Women and Welfare Reform: Between a Rock and a Hard Place,
by Dána-Ain Davis

Christa Craven: Feminist Anthropology: Past, Present, and Future,
Pamela L. Geller and Miranda K. Stockett, eds.

Neil L. Whitehead: Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger,
by Arjun Appadurai

Mark Goodale: Terror and Violence: Imagination and the Unimaginable,
Andrew Strathern, Pamela J. Stewart, and Neil L. Whitehead, eds.

John G. Galaty: Risk Management in a Hazardous Environment: A Comparative Study of Two Pastoral Societies,
by Michael Bollig

Li Zhang: Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization,
by A. Aneesh

Judy Bieber: The Forbidden Lands: Colonial Identity, Frontier Violence, and the Persistence of Brazil’s Eastern Indians, 1750–1830,
by Hal Langfur

David Stoll: Ch’orti’-Maya Survival in Eastern Guatemala: Indigeneity in Transition,
by Brent E. Metz

Jeffrey R. Parsons: Breaking Through Mexico’s Past: Digging the Aztecs with Eduardo Matos Moctezuma, by David Carrasco,
Leonardo López Luján, and Eduardo Matos Moctezuma

Maureen Trudelle Schwarz: History Is in the Land: Multivocal Tribal Traditions in Arizona’s San Pedro Valley,
by T. J. Ferguson and Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh

Maureen Trudelle Schwarz: Chiricahua Apache Enduring Power: Naiche’s Puberty Ceremony Paintings,
by Trudy Griffin-Pierce

Christopher Peebles: Light on the Path: The Anthropology and History of the Southeastern Indians,
Thomas J. Pluckhahn and Robbie Ethridge, eds.

Nancy J. Parezo: Edward P. Dozier: The Paradox of the American Indian Anthropologist,
by Marilyn Norcini

David S. Whitley: Great Basin Rock Art: Archaeological Perspectives,
Angus R. Quinlan, ed.

Nan Rothschild: Tanana and Chandalar: The Alaska Field Journals of Robert A. McKennan,
Craig Mishler and William E. Simeone, eds.

Dennis B. McGilvray: Languages and Nations: The Dravidian Proof in Colonial Madras,
by Thomas R. Trautmann

James Collins: Language in Late Modernity: Interaction in an Urban School,
by Ben Rampton

David C. Evans: Dyadic Data Analysis,
by David A. Kenny, Deborah A. Kashy, and William L. Cook

Osbjorn M. Pearson: Skeleton Keys: An Introduction to Human Skeletal Morphology, Development, and Analysis, second ed.,
by Jeffrey H. Schwartz

Debra Komar: The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians,
by R. J. Chacon and D. H. Dye

Lawrence G. Straus: Una Historia de la Investigación sobre el Paleolítico en la Península Ibérica,
by Jordi Estévez and Assumpció Vila

Lawrence G. Straus: The Palaeolithic Occupation of Vogelherd Cave. Implications for the Subsistence Behavior of Late Neanderthals and Early Modern Humans,
by Laura Niven

Lawrence G. Straus: When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met,
Nicholas J. Conard, ed.

Lawrence G. Straus: La Grotte du Boquete de Zafarraya (Málaga, Andalousie),
Cecilio Barroso Ruíz and Henry de Lumley, eds.

Lawrence G. Straus: L’Aurignacien et le Gravettien de Mitoc-Malu Galben (Moldavie Roumaine),
Marcel Otte, Vasile Chirica, and Paul Haesaerts, eds.

Donald O. Henry: Tübingen–Damascus Excavation and Survey Project 1999–2005,
Nicholas J. Conard, ed.

Frank Hole: The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East,
by Alan Simmons

C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky: The Origins of State Organizations in Prehistoric Highland Fars, Southern Iran: Excavations at
Tal-E Bakun, by Abbas Alizadeh

Thomas H. McGovern: World of the Vikings, by Richard Hall

Rani T. Alexander: The Maya and Catholicism: An Encounter of World Views,
by John D. Early

Keith Malcolm Prufer: Settlement and Archaeology at Quiriguá, Guatemala,
by Wendy Ashmore

Vernon Scarborough: Olmec Archaeology and Early Mesoamerica,
by Christopher A. Pool

William P. Mitchell: Precolumbian Water Management: Ideology, Ritual, and Power,
Lisa J. Lucero and Barbara W. Fash, eds.

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