The Lost World of Monticello: An Evolutionary Perspective
Fraser D. Neiman
Department of Archaeology, Monticello, Box 316, Charlottesville VA 22902.
Key Words: Agricultural diversification; Architectural segregation; Colonial Virginia; Costly signaling; Evolutionary game theory; Historical archaeology; Monticello; Slave- labor management; Thomas Jefferson
Abstract: This essay explores how an evolutionary perspective can help historical archaeologists use archaeological evidence to further our understanding of historical dynamics associated with the global demographic expansions of Europeans and Africans that began in the late fifteenth century. It sketches evolutionary models for some of the economic and social strategies of free and enslaved people that created a slave society in the Chesapeake region in the seventeenth century and conditioned its historical trajectory up to the Civil War. Those strategies informed the choices made by Thomas Jefferson as he developed Monticello Plantation around 1770. Evolutionary models offer tools to unravel the historical significance of subsequent change in slave and elite housing, slave settlement patterns, and agricultural ecology, documented in the archaeological record at Monticello and the region.
Eurasian Gates: The Earliest Human Dispersals
Eudald Carbonell, Marina Mosquera, Xosé Pedro Rodríguez José María Bermúdez de Castro†, Francesc Burjachs‡, Jordi Rosell, Robert Sala, and Josep Vallverdú
All authors except J. M. Bermúdez de Castro are affiliated with IPHES, Spain
† Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre Evolución Humana (CENIEH), Spain
‡ Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)
Key Words: Eurasia; Hominin dispersals; Socialization of technology; Generalist diet;
This paper revises the current state of the debate about the earliest hominin dispersals out of Africa. First we review the archaeological evidence for the earliest occupation of Asia and Europe. Next we summarize the environmental parameters related to the earliest phases of human evolution—specifically, climatic implications for human adaptations and faunal dispersals. We discuss which were the first hominins to leave Africa, and we propose the invention of technology as a fundamental step for the development of our genus, likely related to changes in subsistence and diet during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. From our point of view, hominins were able to generalize the use of technology, as well as to generate, integrate, and diffuse new information into their collective social behavior. We refer to this concept as “socialization.” Hence, technology and the socialization thereof became integral aspects of the ecological niche of hominins.
A Consideration of Methods and Analytical Search Radius in (Zoo)archaeological Refitting
R. Lee Lyman
Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri
Key Words: Bilateral symmetry; Bone dispersal; Conjoining; Refitting; Site structure
Archaeologists have refitted or conjoined fragments of lithic and ceramic artifacts and bones for more than a century. Mechanical refitting involves finding conjoining fragments of an original entity; refitting of faunal remains also can involve intermembral articulations, neighborhood analysis, and bilateral symmetry. One question that has not previously been raised concerns the size of the area from which possible refitting specimens are drawn. This analytical search radius should be determined by the research question under scrutiny, but in reality it is typically delimited by the extent of excavation within one site. North American elk (Cervus elaphus) remains from two contemporaneous archaeological sites about seven kilometers apart in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon reveal possible bilateral pairs of astragali within one site and also between the two sites. These pairs suggest within-site/ between-house meat sharing and also between-village meat sharing between ca. AD 1400 and 1800. This finding underscores the critical nature of defining the analytical search radius when refits of any material are sought.
International Development and Bilateral Aid to Kenya in the 1990s
John R. Campbell
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London
Key Words: Bilateral donors; Development policy; Kenya; Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
This paper seeks to analyze a decade of international development in Kenya
through the lens of a multi-sited and multi-level ethnographic analysis. It
demonstrates the inherently messy and political nature of development as well as
the need to analyze the social and cultural contexts in which policies are debated,
negotiated, and implemented. An anthropological approach provides insight into
the complexity of development policy and the unpredictability of development
outcomes which are obscured by research that relies on policy texts and/or
eschews empirical fieldwork.
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