by Michel Lenoir
by Regna Darnell
KEY WORDS: Americanist tradition; Ruth Benedict; Franz Boas; Cultural critique; Culture and personality; Relativism; Synergy
Although Ruth Benedict has been remembered within Americanist anthropology primarily for her cultural relativism expressed in terms of pattern integration and her best-selling Patterns of Culture (1934), her later work moved beyond the culture-specific study of small-scale societies like those of the American Southwest to encompass cross-cultural examination of modern nation-states. Her anthropology became an explicit tool for multicultural awareness, anti-racism, and humanistic cultural critique in ways that remain relevant today. Reexamination of these ideas is overdue.
by Wesley Bernardini
KEYWORDS: Clan; Hopi; Identity; Memory; Oral tradition
Hopi clan migration traditions appear to hold valuable knowledge about precontact Puebloan life. Some scholars, however, question the historical veracity of these migration stories, noting that small, unilineal, exogamous groups cannot move independently, nor are they likely to have persisted for the hundreds of years necessary to maintain the knowledge attributed to them. Reexamination of the units and mechanisms of information curation underlying Hopi traditions provides new insights into the nature of Hopi clans and the manner of their reproduction. Rather than kinship units organized by a dogma of unilineal descent, Hopi clans are shown to operate as local groups—Lévi-Straussian “houses”—organized by the control of ceremonies and the ritual objects that authenticate them. Heritage is traced not through a genealogy of lineal ancestors, but through a topogeny of places where the proprietary ceremony has been performed by a succession of custodial house-groups. Implications for the persistence of descent groups and their associated traditions in the Southwest and beyond are discussed.
by Ronald H. Towner
KEY WORDS: Dendroarchaeology; Dinétah; Early Navajo; Migration; Paleoclimate
by Oscar Moro-Abadía
KEY WORDS: Dating techniques; Eurocentrism, Human evolution; Mobiliary art; Paleolithic art; Parietal art; Personal ornaments; Rock art
In the past two decades, several scholars have suggested that Paleolithic art studies have been undergoing a revolution. This disciplinary transformation is generally related to the discovery of new sites, such as Chauvet or Blombos Cave; the development of new methodologies, such as AMS radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating; and the rise of new theories concerning human cognitive evolution. These firsts are not only revolutionizing the chronology and technical study of the oldest forms of art, they are also modifying the ways Paleolithic art is conceptualized. In this article we analyze some of these recent variations in how we view, think about, and define such art. Borrowing David Clarke’s terminology, we interpret the current change in our understanding of Paleolithic art as a “loss of innocence” stemming from an increasing criticism of the main axioms that defined the study of Paleolithic art until the 1980s. In this context, the loss of disciplinary innocence can be defined as the process by which most specialists become conscious of the complexity of this art.
Louise Lamphere: New Jersey Dreaming: Capital, Culture and the Class of ’58, by Sherry B. Ortner
Cathy A. Small: Learning To Be an Individual: Emotion and Person in an American Junior High School, by Hyang Jin Jung
Leo R. Chavez: Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada, by Irene Bloemraad
Virginia R. Dominguez: Citizenship and Those Who Leave: The Politics of Emigration and Expatriation, Nancy L. Green and François Weil, eds.
Jane H. Hill: Turf Wars: Discourse, Diversity, and the Politics of Place, by Gabriella Gahlia Modan
Les W. Field: Native Hubs: Culture, Community, and Belonging in Silicon Valley and Beyond, by Renya K. Ramirez
Philip K. Bock: The Cambridge Handbook of Sociocultural Psychology, Jaan Valsiner and Alberto Rosa, eds.
Charles Lindholm: Handbook of Cultural Psychology, Shinobu Kitayama and Dov Cohen, eds.
Ronda L. Brulotte: Shane, the Lone Ethnographer: A Beginner’s Guide to Ethnography, by Sally Campbell Galman
Michael D. Jackson: Ordinary Affects, by Kathleen Stewart
Jack Sidnell: The Hidden Life of Girls: Games of Stance, Status, and Exclusion, by Marjorie Harness Goodwin
Richard Flint: Fellow Travelers: Indians and Europeans Contesting the Early American Trail, by Philip Levy
Susan Stebbins: Big Medicine from Six Nations, by Ted Williams and Debra Roberts, ed.
Sean O’Neill: Pitch Woman and Other Stories: The Oral Traditions of Coquelle Thompson, Upper Coquille Athabaskan Indian, William R. Seaburg, ed.
Maureen Trudelle Schwarz: Native American Life-History Narratives: Colonial and Postcolonial Navajo Ethnography, by Susan Berry Brill de Ramirez
Paul Nadasdy: Native Americans and the Environment: Perspectives on the Ecological Indian, Michael E. Harkin and David Rich Lewis, eds.
Linda Hall: Malintzin’s Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico, by Camilla Townsend
Charles R. Hale: Broccoli and Desire: Global Connections and Maya Struggles in Postwar Guatemala, by Edward F. Fischer and Peter Benson
Janaki Bakhle: Peasant Pasts: History and Memory in Western India, by Vinayak Chaturvedi
Bernard Bate: The Encounter Never Stops: A Return to the Field of Tamil Rituals, by Isabelle Clark-Decès
Paul Christopher Johnson: Ritual, Discourse, and Community in Cuban Santería: Speaking a Sacred World, by Kristina Wirtz
Kaoru Oguri: Sensational Knowledge: Embodying Culture through Japanese Dance, by Tomie Hahn
Christina Schwenkel: The Limits of Kinship: South Vietnamese Households, 1954–1975, by David W. Haines
Lawrence G. Straus: Paris Primitive: Jacques Chirac’s Museum on the Quai Branly, by Sally Price
David Dinwoodie: A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology, by Alessandro Duranti
Leslie G. Freeman: Las Sociedades del Paleolítico en la Región Cantábrica, Miguel Ángel Fano Martínez, ed.
Lawrence G. Straus: Cueva Bajondillo (Torremolinos, Málaga). Secuencia Cronocultural y Paleoambiental del Cuaternario Reciente en la Bahía de Málaga, Miguel Cortés Sánchez, ed.
David J. Meltzer: Foragers of the Terminal Pleistocene in North America, Renee B. Walker and Boyce N. Driskel, eds.
Kelly E. Graf: Human Ecology of Beringia, by John F. Hoffecker and Scott A. Elias
Gregory Zaro: The Model-Based Archaeology of Socionatural Systems, Timothy A. Kohler and Sander E. van der Leeuw, eds.
Siân Jones: Images, Representations, and Heritage: Moving Beyond Modern Approaches to Archaeology, Ian Russell, ed.
Steven W. Silliman: Historical Archaeology: Why the Past Matters, by Barbara J. Little
Barbara J. Little: The Archaeology of Collective Action, by Dean J. Saitta
Michael W. Graves: The Archaeology of Islands, by Paul Rainbird
Norman Yoffee: Settlement and Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams, Elizabeth C. Stone, ed.
Geoffrey E. Braswell: Gordon R. Willey and American Archaeology: Contemporary Perspectives, by Jeremy A. Sabloff and William L. Fash, eds.
David A. Phillips, Jr.: The Architecture of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Stephen H. Lekson, ed.
James D. Keyser: Australian Apocalypse: The Story of Australia’s Greatest Cultural Monument, by Robert G. Bednarik
JAR’S HIGH STANDARDS FOR SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING are maintained by the quality of the Journal’s reviewers. The peer-review system, which so distinctively characterizes the tradition of academic publishing in the U.S., is increasingly being emulated by anthropological journals in the rest of the world. While far from perfect, it provides clear help and advice to both the Editor and authors and definitely improves the quality of journals and manuscripts. Reviewing is a thankless task; however, it is a professional obligation upon which our entire system of not only publication but also academic tenure and promotion rests. Journals like JAR are thus gatekeepers of both scholarly excellence and professional success. The responsibility of reviewing is a very important one, which we all must share and take seriously.
Once again—for the 14th year—I warmly thank the Associate Editors, members of the JAR Editorial Board, and the following individuals for their timely, thoughtful, and constructive reviews in late 2007 and throughout 2008. Those who reviewed multiple manuscripts have my special thanks!
JAR and the JAR Distinguished Lecture Series grow and thrive because of our superb, dedicated staff: Ann Braswell (Business Manager), June-el Piper (Copy Editor), and Donna Carpio (Compositor), Char Peery and Ethan Kalosky (Student Book Review Coordinators), and Sean Bruna (Student Webmaster). To all, my enthusiastic and sincere thanks!
Lawrence G. Straus