Volume 68, Number 1, Abstracts

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Distinguished Lectures


Resource Control and the Development of Political Economies In Small-Scale Societies: Contrasting Prehistoric Southwestern Korea and the Coast Salish Region of Northwestern North America
by Colin Grier and Jangsuk Kim

Cyclical Cultural Trajectories: A Case Study From The Mesa Verde Region
by Fumiyasu Arakawa

Molle Beer Production In A Peruvian Central Highland Valley
by Lidio M. Valdez

Disconnected From The “Diaspora”: Japanese Americans and the Lack of Transnational Ethnic Networks
by Takeyuki (Gaku) Tsuda

Book Reviews

Resource Control And The Development Of Political Economies In Small-Scale Societies: Contrasting Prehistoric Southwestern Korea and the Coast Salish Region of Northwestern North America

Colin Grier
Department of History, Kyung Hee University, Seoul

Jangsuk Kim
Department of History, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea

KEY WORDS: Archaeology, Korea, Northwest Coast, Households, Intensification, Political Economy

ABSTRACT: The emergence of formalized leadership, institutionalized political hierarchies, and elite control over resources are key areas of study in relation to the emergence of complex societies. In this paper we consider these developments in two areas of the world: the Coast Salish region of the precontact Northwest Coast of North America and prehistoric southwestern Korea. On the Northwest Coast, increasing house size through time reflects an increasingly central role for households in orchestrating production and consumption. In southwestern Korea, houses and households expanded similarly with the adoption of dry farming agriculture. However, with the subsequent adoption of intensive, wet rice agriculture, houses shift to small, single-family structures and storage moves to external features. We contrast these case studies, attributing the divergent trends to distinct historical trajectories of household organization and differences in the scale at which resources were controllable. Analysis of these regions illuminates key factors in the development of political systems in small-scale societies.

Cyclical Cultural Trajectories: A Case Study From The Mesa Verde Region

Fumiyasu Arakawa
New Mexico State University & Crow Canyon Archaeological Center

KEY WORDS: Cultural evolutionary models, Incipient social hierarchy, Migration, Mesa Verde (CO), Ancestral Pueblo

ABSTRACT: In this study, models of cultural evolution are used to examine one of most intensively studied archaeological areas in world: the central Mesa Verde region of southern Colorado (USA). I work back and forth between models in this case study to tease out new insights into culture change in the Mesa Verde region and to suggest ways that models of culture change can be improved. The results of a new research program, the Village Ecodynamics Project, are presented here and provide the most recent and refined account of settlement in the central Mesa Verde region. The study concludes that many factors contributed to culture change in the region, and it suggests that one factor has been overlooked in previous studies: the development of incipient social hierarchy. This study argues that the development of social inequality needs to be added to the mix of factors that produced culture change, especially immigration from the region during the tenth and thirteenth centuries. This study suggests that evolutionary models emphasizing cyclical change are more appropriate than unilinear models. A model of cyclical change that highlights the dimensions of demographic scale and the emergence of hierarchical social organization best describes the cultural trajectory of the Mesa Verde region.

Molle Beer Production In A Peruvian Central Highland Valley

Lidio M. Valdez
Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

KEY WORDS: Fermented beverages, Central Andes, Schinus molle, Molle beer, Indigenous peoples, Ethnography, Archaeology

ABSTRACT: Early accounts left by the Spaniards acknowledge that fermented beverages produced from a variety of products were consumed at the time the Inka Empire flourished in the Andean region. One of these beverages, called molle aqa (molle beer), was made from the berries of the molle tree. However, molle beer is seldom included in scholarly discussions concerning the production and consumption of fermented beverages. In contrast to the attention given to maize beer production, there are no substantial ethnographic accounts reporting the processes that involve the making of molle beer. Likewise, archaeologically, it is uncertain how far back in time this beverage was produced and consumed, although it is frequently asserted that maize beer consumption predated the Inka Empire. Here I report on the production of molle beer in the Peruvian central highlands valley of Ayacucho and discuss the implications for the identification of molle beer production in archaeological contexts. This analysis illustrates that the archaeological signature of molle beer production overlaps significantly with that of maize beer, a situation that has likely prevented the identification of molle beer in archaeological contexts. A detailed description of the process of molle beer making has the potential to provide scholars with the necessary tools to identify fermented beverages other than maize beer.


Disconnected From The “Diaspora”: Japanese Americans and the Lack of Transnational Ethnic Networks

Takeyuki (Gaku) Tsuda
School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University

KEY WORDS: Diasporas, Transnationalism, Ethnic minorities, Japanese diaspora, Nikkei, Japanese Americans

ABSTRACT: Recent scholarship often assumes that peoples of Japanese descent scattered throughout the Americas (the Nikkei) are one of the world’s diasporas. This paper argues that dispersed ethnic groups should not be considered diasporic unless they have maintained social connections with each other across national borders as members of a transnational ethnic community. By using the Japanese Americans as a case study, I analyze how they are no longer really part of a “Japanese diaspora” because they have generally lost their social connections to the Japanese homeland over the generations and do not have sustained transnational relations with other Nikkei communities in the Americas either. In contrast to newer diasporas consisting of first generation migrants, I suggest some older “diasporas” that have become assimilated and incorporated into their respective host countries are no longer really diasporic but have simply become ethnic minorities which operate in a national context.

Book Reviews

Kathleen R. Gibson: The Evolution of Language, by W. Tecumseh Fitch

Pamela Innes: A Grammar of Creek (Muskogee), by Jack B. Martin

Marcia Mikulak: White Kids: Language, Race, and Styles of Youth Identity, by Mary Bucholtz

Pierre Minn: Forces of Compassion: Humanitarianism between Ethics and Politics, Erica Bornstein and Peter Redfield, eds.

Roberto Barrios: Disaster Culture: Knowledge and Uncertainty in the Wake of Human and Environmental Catastrophe, by Gregory Button

Noel B. Salazar: Going First Class? New Approaches to Privileged Travel and Movement, Vered Amit, ed.

Alfonso Morales: The New Entrepreneurs: How Race, Class, and Gender Shape American Enterprise, by Zulema Valdez

John R. Welch: Indigenous Peoples and the Collaborative Stewardship of Nature: Knowledge Binds and Institutional Conflicts, by Anne Ross, Kathleen Pickering Sherman, Jeffrey G. Snodgrass, Henry D. Delcore, and Richard Sherman

Roberto J. González: Terrifying Muslims: Race and Labor in the South Asian Diaspora, by Junaid Rana

Marc D. Perry: Hip Hop Desis: South Asian Americans, Blackness, and a Global Race Consciousness, by Nitasha Tamar Sharma

Nile Green: The Dream in Islam: From Qur’anic Tradition to Jihadist Inspiration, by Iain R. Edgar

John Schaefer: Girls of the Factory: A Year with the Garment Workers of Morocco, by M. Laetitia Cairoli

Luis Alberto Borrero: European Encounters with the Yamana People of Cape Horn, before and after Darwin, by Anne Chapman

Lynn A. Meisch: Folk Art of the Andes, by Barbara Mauldin

Stephen Stuempfle: Funky Nassau: Roots, Routes, and Representation in Bahamian Popular Music, by Timothy Rommen

Patrick Staib: Coffee and Community: Maya Farmers and Fair-Trade Markets, by Sarah Lyon

Jonathan N. Maupin: Mexican Community Health and the Politics of Health Reform, by Susanne Schneider

Philip E. Coyle: Huichol Territory and the Mexican Nation: Indigenous Ritual, Land Conflict, and Sovereignty Claims, by Paul M. Liffman

Allan K. McDougall: Three Fires Unity: The Anishnaabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands, by Phil Bellfy

Thomas W. Killion: Bridging the Divide: Indigenous Communities and Archaeology into the 21st Century, Caroline Phillips and Harry Allen, eds.

April Nowell: Prehistoric Rock Art: Polemics and Progress, by Paul G. Bahn

Jeffrey Quilter: Beyond Wari Walls: Regional Perspectives on Middle Horizon Peru, Justin Jennings, ed.

Margaret A. Jackson: A Culture of Stone: Inka Perspectives on Rock, by Carolyn Dean

Matthew Liebmann: Handbook of Postcolonial Archaeology, Jane Lydon and Uzma Z. Rizvi, eds

Paul White: Mining Archaeology in the American West, by Donald L. Hardesty

Mark A. Giambastiani: The Great Basin: A Natural Prehistory,by Donald K. Grayson

E. James Dixon: Northwest Coast: Archaeology as Deep History, by Madonna L. Moss

Judith Francis Zeitlin: Enduring Conquests: Rethinking the Archaeology of Resistance to Spanish Colonialism in the Americas, Matthew Liebmann and Melissa S. Murphy, eds.

Celeste Marie Gagnon: The Bioarchaeology of the Human Head: Decapitation, Decoration, and Deformation, Michelle Bonogofsky, ed.

Department of Anthropology