What is a Bureaucracy?

  1. Division of labor

    high degree of specialization

    each unit carries out only one task

    many subunits

  2. Hierarchical distribution of authority

    chain of command

    people "above" give orders

    efficient way to coordination

  3. An ever-present system of rules, regulations

  4. Workers are rewarded for following rules

    rewards for bureaucratic competence

    punishment for non-compliance

  5. Rule-following becomes an end in itself

  6. Emphasis on maintaining records

    keeping an adequate "memory"

    produces red tape, paper blizzards

  7. Impersonal and formal relationships

    credentials for hiring (not charisma)

    merit for promotion

  8. Bureaucratic positions cannot be sold, bought, inherited

  9. People desire upward mobility

  10. Successful bureaucrats rarely part-time.

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