History, Culture,

and Self-Determination

150 years after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and into the 21st Century.

April 24, 1998

5 PM - 9 PM

Old Armijo School

April 25, 1998

9 AM - 5 PM

UNM Law School

Patsy and Nadine Córdova
"¡Que Viva La Raza! ¡Que Viva El Chicano!" This was the proud cry of a MEChA

Student at Vaughn High School. This Grito, among other contributing

reasons, led to the termination of Patsy and Nadine Córdova; two teachers

who combined, have over 35 years of teaching experience. Both were born

and raised in Vaughn.

What administration of the school had been so blind to was what Patsy and

Nadine had been teaching. They believed that learning was a result of

combining education with relativity. In other words, in order to learn,

develop valuable skills, and to survive in the real world, the students

needed topics that they themselves could relate to. This was precisely

what the sisters had been teaching. They along with many of the MEChA

students, had been labeled as militant and racist. But on the contrary,

the two teachers had been teaching topics which included a variety of

races such as Jewish (the Holocaust), African Americans (the Million Man

March), and Raza (the Civil Rights Movement).

It was during an assembly that the Co-Chairpersons gave an encouraging

speech of recruitment that led to the following event ... the proud grito

from a student, "¡Que Viva La Raza! ¡Que Viva El Chicano!",marked

the beginning of a battle that carried throughout the

school's administration leading to the firing of the two teachers. At

this point, 33% of the students were members of MEChA. Despite this

consequence, the entire matter has been dragged further along into the

court systems of this nation.

On December of last year, Nadine and Patsy were awarded the Guardian of

the Constitution Award from the ACLU. On April 18, 1998, the Córdova

sisters received the Pilgrimage for Peace Award from the Archdiocese of

Santa Fé.

Dr. Charles Truxillo

Dr. Charles Truxillo is a native of Alburquerque, New México. He earned his Ph.D. from UNM and currently is a Research Assistant Professor for the

Center for Regional Studies at UNM. He is also a visiting scholar for Chicano Studies at UNM.

Dr. Truxillo served as Professor of History at New México Highlands

University from 1992 to 1997.

Moises Gonzales
Moises Gonzales is a member of the Concilio de San Pedro, an organization

that represents the heirs of the San Pedro land Grant and currently works

on projects related to the preservation of traditional agriculture and

community natural resource management. He is a graduate from the

University of New México in Community and Regional Planning Program and

works as a Planner for the City of Española.

Damacio A. López

P O Box 1688

Bernalillo, New México 87004

505-867-0141 505-255-0520fax

Mr. López was born on September 8, 1943 in Socorro, New México

thirty-eight miles form ground zero of the first nuclear bomb explosion

in 1945. Damacio spent eighteen years as a professional golfer before

returning to college in 1988. He graduated cum laude from the University

of New México in 1992 and is currently employed as the Research Director

of Re-Visioning New México, a non-profit public research and education

organization which serves grassroots communities across New México.

Damacio is a former Chairman of the Board of the Military Toxics Project

and has been a member of the working Group of the Legacy Project, a

non-profit organization that monitors and advocates military toxics clean

up in the United States. Damacio was a steering committee member of a

national group called The Eco-Democracy Project which seeks to organize

environmentalists around the issue of money in politics and it's link to

environmental legislations.

Damacio is a member of the Pace Money in Politics Task Force and is a

past President of the New México Progressive Alliance for Community

Empowerment (PACE), he has led the Depleted Uranium Task Force of PACE

for the past 4 years. He served on the DOE/Sandía Site Priority Ranking

Team on environmental restoration at Kirtland Air Force Base in

Alburquerque, New México as a member of the Community Advisory Board

(CAB) for clean up at DOE/Sandía and the Inhalation and Toxicology

Research Institute (ITRI).

Teresa Córdova

Teresa Córdova is an Associate Professor of Community and Regional Planning at the University of New Mexico. She teaches courses on Foundations of Community Development, Social Policy and Planning, Political Economy of Urban Development, and Community Planning Methods. She works closely with the Environmental Justice Movement and publishes on the topic of global local relations and issues of community development. Dr. Córdova also writes in the area of Chicana Studies and has published "Power and Knowledge: Colonialism in the Academy," "Roots and Resistance: Emergent Writings of Twenty Years of Chicana Feminist Struggle," "Grassroots Mobilizations by Chicanas in the Environmental and Economic Justice Movement," and co-edited Chicana Voices: Intersections of Class, Race, and Gender. She sits on numerous advisory boards and policy committees and also works closely with student organizations.

Antonio Maestas
Antonio Maestas was born and raised in Alburquerque's North Valley. Next

month, he will be a graduate of UNM Law School. Antonio spent 8 years

working at El Centro de la Raza in Seattle, Washington and returned to New

México upon graduation from Washington State University. Upon graduation

from UNM, he plans to be active in NM politics and community issues and he

will practice law in his home state of New México.

History, Culture, and Self-Determination

The Chicano Struggle

150 years after the

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

and into the 21st Century

Old Armijo School,

University of New México

April 24 & 25, 1998

Friday Evening

Old Armijo School [1021 Isleta SW (at Gatewood)]

5:00pm to 6:30pm Reception Music by Chuy Martínez

6:30pm to 7:00pm Poetry by Levi Romero

7:00pm to 7:45pm Historical Perspective by Dr. Charles Truxillo

8:00pm to 9:00pm Poetry by Loretta Trujillo, Adan Baca, Andrea Serrano, María Leyba



UNM Law School [1117 Stanford NE (Stanford and Mountain)]

9:45am _ 10:00am Welcome and Introduction [rm. 2401]

10:00am _ 10:50am Concurrent Session 1

The Land Rights Movement in New México: [rm. 2404]

Juan Sánchez, Chilili Land Grant

Richard Nieto, Carñuel Land Grant

Moises Gonzales, San Pedro Land Grant

Steve Polaco

Chicano Studies in Public Schools: [rm. 2405]

Patsy and Nadine Córdova, teachers from Vaughn, NM

Sofía Martínez, teacher and MEChA sponsor from Wagon Mound, NM

10:50am _ 11:20am BREAK Music and Poetry Ana Mascareñas

11:30am _ 12:20pm Concurrent Session 2

Contemporary Issues in Traditional Communities: [rm. 2404]

Moises Gonzales, City of Española Planner

Laurie Weahkee, Petroglyph Monument Protection Coalition

Ysaura Andaluz, Río Grande Community Development Corporation

Enduring Effects of Colonization on Chicano/Mexicanos in New México [rm. 2405]

Bazán Romero, UNM American Studies

Pedro Arechuleta, Community Activist, Tierra Amarilla

Dra. Teresa Córdova, UNM Community and Regional Planning

Damacio López, Re-Visioning New México

12:20pm _ 1:30pm LUNCH [patio]

Music, Mariachi Lobo

1:30pm _ 2:15pm Concurrent Sessions 3

El Puente _ A Model for Youth Leadership Development [rm. 2403]

Carmela Roybal and Louie García

The Land Rights Movement in New México: [rm. 2404]

Juan Sánchez, Chilili Land Grant

Richard Nieto, Carñuel Land Grant

Moises Gonzales, San Pedro Land Grant

Ike De Vargas, Vallecitos and Petaca Land Grants, La Compañía Ocho

Chicano Studies in Public Schools: [rm. 2405]

Patsy and Nadine Córdova, teachers from Vaughn, NM

Sofía Martínez, teacher and MEChA sponsor from Wagon Mound, NM

2:15pm _ 2:45pm Concurrent Sessions 4

El Puente _ A Model for Youth Leadership Development [rm. 2403]

Carmela Roybal and Louie García

History of NM since Guadalupe Hidalgo [rm. 2405]

Dr. Charles Truxillo

Water Rights _ Current Issues [rm. 2406]

David Benavídez, Northern New Mexico Legal Services

Antonio Maestas, UNM Law School

2:45pm _ 3:00pm BREAK

3:00pm _ 3:45pm Forum

3:45pm _ 4:00pm Closing

I used to say I was Mexican, but I didn't

understand why until I took Chicano Studies

when I went to college." -Nadine Córdova

"Societies and groups that emphasize pride of the Mexican American are under attack. It's going on not only in New México, but across the country as well." -Nadine Córdova

Constitución de Nuevo México Artículo II y Sección 5

"Todos los derechos, privilegios e inmunidades, civiles politicos y religiosos, garantizados al pueblo de Nuevo México por el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo: seran preservados inviolalbes." -Alianza Federal de Mercedes

"Although we are fighting for land, we are fighting for the survival and protection of our culture."

-Reies López Tijerina

"When the new government of México sought to exercise the independence it had won from the Empire of Spain, in 1824, by imposing a land tax, the villagers rebelled . . . In an almost bloodless uprising, the Chimayó Revolt of 1837, the Hispano farmers and Pueblo Indians defeated the lackadaisical army of the Mexican Governor, Albino Pérez. In fleeing the battle of Santa Cruz, he was captured by the Native Americans of the Santo Domingo Pueblo. And his captors cut off his head and sent the trophy by special messenger to the victorious rebels. Encouraged by the headless state of affairs, "the rabble of mixed bloods," as one historian called them, marched on the capitol of Santa Fé, occupied it, and installed their own governor, a Native of Taos, José Gonzales.

The Taos Revolt broke out in 1847. Once again the Hispano farmers and Pueblo Indians joined arms, this time in opposition to their newest conquerors, and killed the newly appointed American governor, Charles Bent, in the Governor's Mansion. The US Army ended the rebellion when it besieged and leveled the Catholic Church where the insurgents where thought to be hiding. Leaders of the rebellion were executed. "The Spanish and Native people hung together," says Facundo Valdez. "Literally, they were hung by the neck." - La Raza: The Mexican Americans, Steiner, p. 32 and 33..










- flyer passed at Alianza meetings. Taken from La Raza:

The Mexican Americans, Steiner, p. 52

"After the United States invaded the "Southwest" and took it from the young Mexican nation that had just (1822) gained its independence from España, México was forced at gunpoint to sign a treaty that gave the "Southwest" -- then the Mexican areas of Alta California, Nuevo México, and Texas -- to the United States. However, México afraid for the treatment that its former citizens in Nuevo México and elsewhere in the "Southwest" might receive at the hands of the US, refused to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo unless the US representatives agreed to protect the land grants of the Indo-Hispano and Native Citizens of Nuevo México and the rest of the "Southwest". The US representatives -- the US Attorney General and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the US Senate -- finally signed the Protocol to the Treaty (May 26, 1848), after which México signed the entire treaty (May 30, 1848). The Protocol pledged the US to protect the land grants just as if they were still under the control of México." -Alianza Information "The Great Land Robbery" taken from the Alianza Folder in UNM Zimmerman Library Center for South West Research.

The Planning Committee would like to acknowledge and thank

the following groups and individuals for their support and

participation in this Conference.

La Raza Estudiantil

Chicano Studies

Office of Student Affairs

Vice President for Student Affairs, Dr. Eliseo Torres

ASUNM Student Special Events

Center For Regional Studies, Dr. Tobías Durán

Student Bar Association



Hispanic Round Table

Resource Center for Raza Planning

El Centro de la Raza

La Raza Unida

Manuel García

Planning Committee

Paula García

Arturo Nieto

Juan Fidel Larrañaga

Vidalia Chávez

Antonio Maestas

Gabriel Rivera

La Raza Estudiantil

Student Union Building 105 Box 67

University of New México

Alburquerque, NM 87131

Partido Nacional La Raza Unida


Daniel Osuna

"The Positive Revolution:

Raza 150 Years After Guadalupe Hidalgo"

Saturday May 2, 1998.

1:30 - 3:30 PM

South Broadway Cultural Center

1025 Broadway SE 848-1323

History, Culture, and Self-Determination

University of New México

April 24, 1998 : 5 PM - 9 PM Old Armijo School

April 25, 1998 : 9 AM - 5 PM UNM Law School

Conference Information

The purpose of the conference is to promote dialogue about the history and current struggle of the

Chicano people for self-determination 150 years after the US conquered the northern territory of

México through the US-México War (often referred to as the Mexican-American War). The

conference will bring together grassroots activists, researchers, and students to share

knowledge and insight on the importance of maintaining the New Mexican culture through an

understanding of our history and current situation.

The intended audience for the conference is people who are interested in the continued survival

and cultural integrity of New México communities including high school and university students

as well as people from communities from around New México. A special emphasis of the

conference is on the effort to maintain the cultural and historical connection to land and water as

a basis for determining the future survivability and sustainability of New México communities.

La Raza Estudiantil

Student Union Building 105 Box 67

University of New México

Alburquerque, NM 87131

You can contact Steering Committee

Co-chairs Paula García (lamorena@unm.edu)

or Arturo Nieto (nietoar@unm.edu).

History, Culture, and Self-Determination

April 24, 1998 : 5 PM - 9 PM Old Armijo School

April 25, 1998 : 9 AM - 5 PM UNM Law School


History, Culture, and Self-Determination is a conference that will explore several contemporary

issues related to United States colonization of New Mexico. The theme for the conference is "New

Mexico - 150 years after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and into the 21st Century." The

purpose of the conference is to raise awareness and to promote dialogue about the historical

context and current struggle of the Chicano people for self-determination. The conference will

bring together grassroots activists, researchers, students and community members to share

knowledge and insight on the importance of maintaining the New Mexican culture through an

understanding of our history and current situation.

Description of Conference

Several communities recognized the anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe

Hidalgo through various events including the annual commemoration in Alcalde and the

symposium in Santa Fe. This event is inspired in part by these efforts and also by some critiques

of these events related to the lack of attendance by younger generations. Through this event we

are attempting to fill that niche by doing extensive outreach to high school and university


The conference program includes a reception, a series of panels, and concurrent sessions. Two

primary topics of the panels are grassroots community activism and historical/theoretical

perspectives. The format of the panels is designed to allow for interaction between presenters and

conference participants. The intended audience is broad including a broad range from community

members and high school students to university students, faculty and staff.

Tentatively, the program includes a Friday evening reception, Saturday morning concurrent

sessions, and Saturday afternoon concurrent sessions (See attached tentative program). The

morning sessions explore contemporary issues in Chicano communities including issues of land

and water rights, New Mexico as and internal colony, Chicano history in public schools, and

growth and gentrification in traditional communities. The afternoon sessions have four tracks:

Youth/Student Activism, Land and Water Rights-Legal Issues, New Mexico History, and

Interactive Discussions. The youth activism session will feature young organizers from various

organizations. The legal issues session will be geared to university students and community

activists. The emphasis of the history sessions will be the history of resistance to US colonization

of NM and relating historical struggles to contemporary grassroots activism. The interactive

sessions will be facilitated discussions about the importance of understanding history and of

being informed and involved in community issues.



In the said territories, property of every kind, . . . shall be inviolably respected. The present owners, heirs of these, and all Mexicans who may hereafter acquire said property by contract, shall enjoy with respect to it guarantees equally ample as if the same belonged to citizens of the United States. -Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

On February 2, 1848, the US and México signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The US was entrusted with obligation to protect property of grantees and extended citizenship status to grantees. Other provisions provided for withdrawal of US troops from México from the war, restored property captured in México to the Mexican government, established boundaries between the two Republics, and payment to México for the ceded territories.

The signed treaty contained 23 articles. Article 10, which would have permitted grantees time to complete all conditions attached to their awards, was deleted. México objected to the deletion. US emissaries responded with the Protocol of Queretaro on May 26, 1948. "These grants ... preserve the legal value which they may possess and the grantees may cause their legitimate titles to be acknowledged before the American tribunals." The Treaty was entered into force on July 4, 1948.

The land grants remained in limbo until 1854, when Congress established the office of surveyor general with jurisdiction over New México. Between 1854 and 1891, when Congress created the Land Claims Commission, only 22 of 212 land grants were patented while 35 million acres were left unsettled. Starting in 1891, the Court heard claims for 231 grants with a total acreage of 34,653,140; 80 grants were confirmed for a total of 1,934,986. Ninety-four percent of the claims of the villagers were dismissed. Eventually, Anglos came to own four-fifths of the former grant areas. The loss of the community lands was a major blow to the economic viability of the villages.

Article X. [Stricken out by the US Senate]

All grants of land made by the Mexican Government or by the competent authorities, in territories previously appertaining to Mexico, and remaining for the future within the limits of the United States, shall be respected as valid, to the same extent that the same grants would be valid, if the said territories had remained within the limits of México. But the grantees of lands in Texas, put in possession thereof, who, by reason of the circumstances of the country since the beginning of the troubles between Texas and the Mexican Government, may have been prevented from fulfilling all the conditions of their grants, shall be under the obligation to fulfill the said conditions within the periods limited in the same respectively; such periods to be now counted from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty: in default of which the said grants shall not be obligatory upon the State of Texas, in virtue of the stipulations contained in this Article.

The forgoing stipulation in regard to grantees of land in Texas, is extended to all grantees of land in the territories aforesaid, elsewhere than in Texas, put in possession under such grants; and, in default of the fulfillment of the conditions of any such grant, within the new period, which, as is above stipulations, begins with the day of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, the same shall be null and void.

The Mexican Government declares that no grant whatever of lands in Texas has been made since the second day of March one thousand eight hundred and thirty six; and that no grant whatever of lands in any of the territories aforesaid has been made since the thirteenth day of May one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. -Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

New Mexico Constitution

Article XII - Education

Sec. 8. [Teachers to learn English and Spanish.]

The legislature shall provide for the training of teachers in the normal schools or otherwise so that they may become

proficient in both the English and Spanish languages, to qualify them to teach Spanish-speaking pupils and students in the public schools and educational institutions of the state, and shall provide proper means and methods to facilitate the teaching of the English language and other branches of learning to such pupils and students.

Sec. 10. [Educational rights of children of Spanish descent.]

Children of Spanish descent in the state of New Mexico shall never be denied the right and privilege of admission and attendance in the public schools or other public educational institutions of the state, and they shall never be classed in separate schools, but shall forever enjoy perfect equality with other children in all public schools and educational institutions of the state, and the legislature shall provide penalties for the violation of this section. This section shall never be

amended except upon a vote of the people of this state, in an election at which at least three-fourths of the electors voting in the whole state and at least two-thirds of those voting in each county in the state shall vote for such amendment.

Chávez, John, R. The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the southwest, Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

Barrera, Mario. Race and Class in the Southwest: A Theory of Racial Inequality, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979.

Steiner, Stan. La Raza: The Mexican Americans, New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

McWilliams, Carey. North from Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States, New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.

Briggs and Van Ness. Land, Water, and Culture: New Perspectives on Hispanic Land Grants, Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987.

Alianza Federal. Spanish Land Grant Question Examined. 1966.

Dunbar, Roxanne. Land Tenure in Northern New Mexico. Dissertation, University of California Los Angeles, 1974.

Westphall, V. The Public Domain in New Mexico: 1854 - 1891. Alburquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1965.

Westphall, V. Merceded Reales. Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983.

Acuña, Rodolfo. Occupied America.

Griswold del Castillo, The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, A Legacy of Conflict. 1990.

Luna, Guadalupe. "This Land Belongs to Me:" Chicanas, Land Grant Adjudication and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Harvard Latino Law Review, (forthcoming in 1998)

Ebright Malcolm. The Guadalupita land grant and the lawyers. Center for Land Grant Studies, 1994.

Ebright, Malcolm. Land grants and lawsuits in northern New Mexico, Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994.

The Tierra Amarilla grant : a history of chicanery / Malcolm Ebright. ADD AUTHOR Center for Land Grant Studies (N.M.) PUBLISHER Santa Fé, N.M. : Center for Land Grant Studies, c1980.

Causes of land loss among the Spanish Americans in northern New Mexico / Clark S. Knowlton. 1973 Land tenure — New Mexico — History. Mexican Americans — New Mexico. Rocky Mountain social science journal, vol. 1 (May1963)."

Reies L. Tijerina and the Alianza Federal de Mercedes : seekers after justice / Clark S. Knowlton. PUBLISHER 1988.

Spanish and Mexican land grants in the Southwest : a edited by Clark S. Knowlton.

Knowlton, Clark S. Fort Collins, CO : The Social Science Journal, 1976.

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Last Updated June 19, 1998, by Juan Fidel [Larranag@eece.unm.edu] Larrañaga