THE LAW SCHOOL OPTION



THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
OFFICE OF ACADEMIC ADVISING

MARY C. SAVAGE, ESQ.

PRELAW ADVISOR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction 1

II. Prelaw Preparation 2

A. Academic Record 2

B. Work/Internship Experience 3

C. Extracurricular Activities 3

III. A Suggested Calendar 4

IV. The Application Process 5

A. The Law School Admission Test 6

B. Preparing for the LSAT 7

C. Law School Recommendations 8

Starting a Prelaw File 8

Prelaw File Checklist 9

D. The Art of Gathering Recommendations 10

E. The Essay 11

V. The Acceptance 12

A. Choosing a Law School 12

B. Early Decision 14

C. Deferred Admission 14

D. Delayed Application 14

E. Financial Aid 15

F. Bar Requirements 15

G. Joint Degree Programs 16

H. Placement After Law School 16

VI. Pre-Law Reading List 16

I. INTRODUCTION

Whether you have decided to apply to law school or are just considering law school as one of many possible options upon graduation, this booklet should be of use to you. What follows is a discussion of the ways in which you can prepare yourself for law school, the mechanics of applying and what you can expect once you are there.

It is possible that you have only a vague desire to attend law school but have heard that it is a good preparation for almost any career. On the other hand, your personal ambitions may be more refined, yet you still may be incorrectly assuming that law school is a necessary stepping stone to your goals. There is a wide range of fields such as public policy, urban and regional planning, criminal justice, social work and others that are law-related, but for which a legal education may not be necessary or the most appropriate training.

Why Law School? Before choosing law as a career, it is important to decide why you are choosing to be a lawyer as well as to know what a lawyer actually does. If you have had a legal internship, you probably have considered both of these issues.

You may realize that the practice of law involves a great deal of research and detail. Many lawyers think of it as fitting pieces into a gigantic puzzle. A legal practice today is a business as well as profession. It involves billing in tenths of an hour, getting clients, working successfully with support staff, associates and partners, marketing yourself and your firm, and continually keeping abreast of the changes in the field.

You may not realize that the profession usually demands long hours. If you want to have ample time for leisure and family, law may not be the best choice for you. You do not, of course, have to work 70 hour weeks, but if you do not, you may not climb the partnership ladder. Know what is important to you. Being a lawyer involves much more than a large paycheck. This book is a starting place for learning more. We hope it will help you make an informed decision about law as a career as well as give you nitty-gritty information about the application process. For additional resources and discussion of your personal situation, see Ms. Savage.

The Law School Experience. It is difficult to generalize about the law school experience since each school has its own identity. However, most law schools have a fairly standardized first-year program that usually covers the study of torts, contracts, property, criminal law, and civil procedure. Within the first year, there is little room for elective coursework, and most courses continue for the full academic year.

During the second and third years of law school, the vast majority of the coursework is elective and generally lasts a semester or a quarter, depending on the school's system. It is during the second and third years that clinical and internship experience may become available, and electives may determine for you your future line of work.

Law school is not a place to specialize in the same way that you choose a major. However, many students develop areas of specialization by taking a preponderance of courses in one field, such as International Law or Environmental Law. For the most part law schools prepare you to think like a lawyer and leave the preparation for the practice of law to on-the-job experience. Because law schools have come under attack for being "too academic," many have started clinical programs designed to give students "hands on" xperience. You will want to investigate the clinical possibilities at the law schools that interest you.

In order to become better acquainted with life as a law student, plan to visit law schools, attend classes and talk to as many students as possible. Discussing your plans and interests with these admissions representatives can be very helpful to your decision making.

II. PRELAW PREPARATION

One of the best features of pre-legal education is that it contains absolutely no requirements or restrictions. You can major in literally any field and take any course or program offered, and subsequently be admitted to a fine law school and become a topnotch lawyer. The key factor is to challenge yourself to do well. Many prelaw students major in political science, history or English. This is only advisable if you like one of these areas of study. Those who major in the traditional prelaw areas will neither be helped nor hindered in the admissions process. What counts, of course, is how well you perform in your chosen field of study.

A. ACADEMIC RECORD

A strong academic record is very important in the law school application process. Johns Hopkins University is well known as a rigorous, academically challenging institution. It is important to demonstrate your capacity for success within a competitive institution. Once again the old adage to "do what you enjoy, and you will do well" appears to hold true. Although a heavy course load does make an impression on admissions officers, it is still more important to take an average number of courses (+/- 15 credits) and do your best. Completing your degree requirements, a semester or a year early is not in itself seen as a benefit.

In evaluating a candidate's undergraduate academic performance and resultant undergraduate cumulative grade point average (G.P.A.), law schools look very carefully at the trends in a student's academic record. A student who has earned high grades in a large number of analytic and advanced courses but whose G.P.A. has been lowered by a few low grades in less demanding or introductory courses taken during the freshman year may be regarded as a stronger candidate than the student who has earned a high G.P.A. by taking numerous introductory courses during the junior and senior years. Law schools will tend to forgive a weak freshman year and/or the ravages of the sophomore slump, provided the student shows real strength in the last two years. Law school admissions committees, however, will be concerned about a candidate who shows real strength in the first year and then shows a decline in G.P.A. each successive year.

You may be tempted to take "law-related" courses. While such courses offer students an opportunity to test their academic interest in law, law schools urge undergraduates not to take these courses in such numbers that they prevent them from taking a broad range of courses in the liberal arts. Many admissions officers also advise against taking too many courses on a pass/fail basis. Although there are exceptions, courses taken pass/fail represent one less opportunity to accurately evaluate a student's academic performance. Many times a pass in a pass/fail course is looked at as a "C."

Students frequently ask what effect, if any, study abroad for a semester or year will have on their admissibility to law school. Some resources indicate that although foreign study itself will not contribute significantly to a candidate's acceptance or rejection, law schools are interested in recruiting students with diverse and enriched educational backgrounds. Students are cautioned, however, to apply to reputable, academically strong study-abroad programs. It is also important to realize that study abroad grades will be calculated into the Law School Data Assembly Service G.P.A., even though those same grades do not appear on the Hopkins transcript.

B. WORK/INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE

Although a law-related work experience or internship is not a requirement for law school admission, such "field experience" offers students an opportunity to test their interest in law. This type of position may involve real responsibility in a legal environment: interviewing clients and gathering salient facts, legal research, writing memoranda, counseling, and negotiation.

Employment in a job not law related may play a role in an admissions committee's decision if such work shows significant entrepreneurial ability or involves situations where employers have given the applicant real responsibility in a company's operations. If a student has found it necessary to work in order to pay for college tuition or expenses, it is important to bring it to the attention of the admissions committee. Demonstrating maturity in accepting responsibility for college expenses and learning to balance employment and academic commitments can have a positive impact on an admissions officer.

C. EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

Law schools neither require nor are impressed by long lists of extracurricular activities. However, admissions committees are looking for significant leadership ability and activity, and a commitment to something other than a high undergraduate G.P.A. Whatever the activity, it needs to indicate meaningful community involvement, leadership, and responsibility in order to have a significant impact on the admissions process.

Note of caution: We wish to warn prelaw students not to make choices concerning courses or majors, work or internship experiences, and extracurricular activities simply to impress law school admissions committees and thereby improve one's chance of admission. It is impossible to second-guess admissions committees. There is disparity among law schools about the comparative weight put on a candidate's academic and extracurricular accomplishments. Admissions committees have the unnerving tendency of changing their criteria from year to year. Remember: Do what you feel comfortable and happy about doing. If you are interested in what you are doing, you will be successful.

III. A SUGGESTED CALENDAR

Freshman and Sophomore Years

Section II on Prelaw Preparation primarily relates to freshmen and sophomores. Keep in mind the general advice to do what you enjoy, since most of us are successful when we truly enjoy what we are doing. . . .You may also want to begin reading books about law and lawyers as you have time (see pages 19-27). It is also important to ask questions about the profession to anyone you know - faculty members, parents, friends' parents, employers, etc. It is not too early to begin gathering information.

Junior Year

- Discuss plans with Prelaw Advisor.

- Study LSAT/LSDAS Registration and Information Book.

- Register for LSATs well in advance of deadline date (June test date recommended).

- Request recommendation letters from faculty.

- Become comfortable with the application process and expectations for applicant.

Summer After Junior Year

- Take LSAT in June, if . . .not taken previously.

- Start mailing postcards for applications and catalogs from law schools which interest you.

- Visit law school campuses.

- Discuss legal careers with friends and acquaintances who are lawyers.

- Continue suggested prelaw reading.

- Begin thinking about personal statement essay on application.

- Review transcript and, if accurate, register for LSDAS.

Fall - Senior Year

- Register for LSDAS if you have not done so, and request transcripts.

- Complete prelaw file as soon as possible (September or October is preferable).

- Discuss law school matching with the Prelaw Advisor.

- Try to mail all applications by November 15.

Early research about the programs and requirements of individual law schools will simplify the application process for you. Law schools will consider LSAT scores, your G.P.A., honors, internships, job experiences, recommendations, your personal essay, and other information in deciding whether to admit you. Since each school weighs these factors differently, utilize the Official Guide to U. S. Law Schools (or another compilation) and confer with your Prelaw Advisor. Ideally you will identify several schools which are close matches to your qualifications as well as a few which are "reaches" and a few where you feel relatively sure you will be admitted. A good rule of thumb is to identify two or three "safe" schools, where your numbers indicate 70% or more of the applicants are admitted and two or three "good match" schools where 50% or more of the applicants are admitted.

Spring - Senior Year

- Check to make sure the law schools you have applied to have the materials they need.

- Try to visit schools where you have been admitted or wait-listed.

- Start making decisions about where to attend.

- Let other schools know your plans.

- If you are wait-listed at a school of your choice, consider forwarding new information to the admissions office, i.e., fall semester grades, thesis, other recommendations, etc.

- Keep in touch with the Prelaw Advisor.

IV. THE APPLICATION PROCESS

Do It Early/Assume Nothing. Our conversations with law school representatives lead us to believe that it is in your best interest to apply as early as possible to law school. Even though stated application deadlines fall anywhere between January 1 and May 1, it is advisable to get your application completed and in by November 15 or earlier. This will insure a careful and thorough reading of it before admissions officers are faced with the thousands of applications that they have had to deal with in recent years. Many law schools have rolling admissions procedures, allowing those applicants who apply early a better opportunity; October 1 is not too early for competitive schools with rolling admissions. Earlier applicants also have an advantage of being considered for scholarship and grant opportunities.

The law school application process is long and complicated. There are many opportunities for mistakes to be made. Start early to allow for delays and assume nothing. If you don't hear from LSDAS or a law school you have applied to, call and verify that your application or registration has been received. You are in charge of your own destiny. The Prelaw Office, your faculty, parents and friends will offer support, encouragement and information, but you, and only you, can complete the application process.

A. THE LAW SCHOOL ADMISSION TEST

What is It?

As the LSAT/LSDAS Registration and Information Book explains, "The LSAT is designed to measure skills that are considered essential for success in law school: the reading and comprehension of complex texts with accuracy and insight; the organization and management of information, and the ability to draw reasonable inferences from it; the ability to reason critically; and the analysis and evaluation of the reasoning and argument of others." The Law School Admission Test continues to be regarded by law schools as the single best predictor of first-year law school performance. It is a half-day standardized test with five 35 minute sections of multiple choice questions. Four of the five sections are scored; the fifth is used to pretest new items. A 30 minute writing sample is administered at the end of the test, and is not scored although it is sent to all law schools to which you apply.

The LSAT: How to Register and When to Take It. Registration forms for the test are found in the LSAT/LSDAS Registration and Information Book. The book is available in the Prelaw Office and contains important information concerning the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS), sample test questions, publications available to help you with the application process, financial aid information and other resources. PLEASE READ THIS BOOK VERY CAREFULLY.

Registration for the examination must be postmarked almost five weeks in advance of the test date. It is important to register early to insure you obtain the test center of your choice. An additional week is provided for late registration, with a late fee. On the day of the test be sure to take your LSAT admission ticket and a form of identification that includes your signature and descriptive information; a photo driver's license should be acceptable.

It is a good idea to take the LSAT in the summer between your junior and senior year. This gives you plenty of time to get the results back and develop a clear picture of where to apply. It also lets you know whether you should take the test again. Retake the LSAT only if you feel there was some definite reason that you did poorly the first time (you didn't feel well, you forgot to guess, etc.) and you feel that you can improve your score substantially. Data indicates that the average retest affects the score three points either way. Although you should attempt to get the best LSAT score you can, and in certain instances, retesting might be important, LSDAS averages more than one test score. Individual law schools react differently to a retake of the LSAT; some will average the scores, others will take the most recent, others will take the highest. Before you decide to retake the test, analyze where you made your mistakes and identify a strategy to improve.

B. PREPARING FOR THE LSAT

It is imperative that you are well prepared for the test. The real question is: "How do I prepare for the test?" Preparation will help you improve your score as well as develop a relaxed and confident attitude toward taking the test. The best way to improve your score on the LSAT is to familiarize yourself with the test using old test questions and reviewing as frequently as you think necessary. Put yourself in a simulated test setting, time and score yourself. Then analyze your mistakes and develop strategies to improve.

Preparatory courses such as Stanley Kaplan, the Princeton Review, or specialized courses on local campuses are another option. You must be the judge of what kind of course best suits your study habits and personality. Many students prefer the regimen of a course rather than depending on their own self-discipline to practice the test. In addition, several publishers offer books on preparing for the LSAT. Barrons has been recommended by several students, but check the bookstore for other publications. The key point to remember is the importance of the test score. Admissions officers often give equal, if not more, weight to the LSAT score than to your G.P.A.

The Law School Data Assembly Service. The Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) is a 12-month subscription service which provides a standardized summary of your academic work. Once you have registered with the LSDAS you need to have an official copy of your transcript sent to LSDAS from the Registrar's Office of every college or university you have attended. A profile report will be sent by LSDAS to all the law schools to which you apply. LSDAS calculates your G.P.A. slightly differently from your JHU transcript. Use the LSDAS grade conversion table on page 25 of the Registration and Information book to know how your G.P.A. will be affected. You should forward subsequent transcripts to LSDAS when they become available.

Recently LSDAS has initiated a recommendation service. Many law schools require receipt of recommendations through Law Services. Although we still strongly recommend utilizing the Johns Hopkins Law School Recommendation Committee when possible, you also have the option of having your recommenders forward their letters directly to Law Services. Law Services will forward two or three letters to the law schools. If you use the Hopkins committee service, we will forward your committee letter, as well as underlying recommendations, to the individual law schools as well as to Law Services.

C. LAW SCHOOL RECOMMENDATIONS

Starting a Prelaw File. There is no magic starting date for establishing a prelaw file; but as with everything else that has been discussed up to this point, the earlier the better. Ideally, a file should be started in your junior year. If you are uncertain as to whether to pursue a legal career, make an appointment with the Prelaw Advisor. Once you have decided law school is for you, obtain a copy of the LSAT/LSDAS Registration and Information Book, read it and set your schedule to meet admissions deadlines. Since you may not have your Recommendations Committee interview until your prelaw file is complete, try to complete it as soon as possible in the fall of your senior year.

Johns Hopkins is one of a handful of undergraduate institutions which utilizes a Law School Recommendations Committee to assist the Hopkins law school applicant. The standard format of the committee recommendation aids law school admissions committees in evaluating and selecting applicants. The applicant in turn benefits from the greater confidence which admissions officers have in recommendations presented in this form. The use of the committee procedure is not mandatory. You may use the Prelaw Office for advising purposes and obtain your own letters of recommendation without going through the Committee. However, the Recommendations Committee process is gaining in popularity at other undergraduate institutions and appears to be highly appreciated by admissions committees.

A recommendation service is also offered by LSDAS. LSDAS will mail your recommendation letters directly to law schools. If you elect to use this service instead of the committee process or recommendation mailing service offered by preprofessional advising, it is important to follow the rules set out in the LSAT/LSDAS Information and Registration book. The Information book states that, "When using this service, the letter from each recommender must be sent by him or her directly to LSAC along with the Letter of Recommendation Form." (Three copies of the form are included in the Information book). The following warning in also included, "Only if this form is fully completed and returned with the letter will LSAC be able to assure matching the letter to your file. You must complete the upper portion of this form and provide it to each recommender. The recommender completes the bottom portion and sends it to LSAC along with his or her letter of recommendation." You may submit up to three letters to be sent to the participating law schools. You are also encouraged to have your letters sent as soon as possible after you have subscribed to LSDAS.

Since this service is new, it is difficult to evaluate its effectiveness. However, the Johns Hopkins Law School Recommendation Committee process continues to give students their best opportunity to be known by law school admission personnel. It continues to be the process that is strongly recommended by our office. In cases where an in-person interview is inconvenient, the LSDAS process may be helpful. In such cases our office will also continue to mail recommendations to law schools. If an applicant decides to utilize this process, the recommender needs to mail his or her letter directly to our office, and we will forward it together with other recommendations collected by the applicant to the law schools. An LSDAS form is necessary to participate in this process, and in the committee process.

To use the services of the Recommendations Committee, register with the Prelaw Office in Merryman Hall East. An information folder will be made up and when it is complete with the materials listed below a committee member will be assigned to interview you. Once you have been assigned to a committee member, you are responsible for scheduling the appointment at a time mutually agreeable with your committee member. Please notify one of the Program Assistants of the date, time and location of your interview, in order to have your file materials available at the proper time. Your interview will take approximately one hour. Sign up for your interview as early in the fall of your senior year as possible. Otherwise, there may be delays scheduling it, which may cause delays in getting your recommendation packet mailed. Remember, if you do not have a complete file, there can be no interview. It is also important to provide the Prelaw Office with addressed envelopes (you must use the envelopes provided by the Prelaw Office) and a fee of $50.00 to cover the cost of copying and mailing the recommendation packet. Your recommendation packet cannot be mailed until the Prelaw Office has received your addressed envelopes and the $50.00 fee. For applicants mailing "recommendations only," the fee is $25.00.

Prelaw File Checklist:

1. Letter of Recommendation - Arrange to have at least two, and preferably three, faculty letters of recommendation sent directly to Mary C. Savage, Prelaw Advisor, Merryman Hall East, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218. Letters from other sources should be similarly addressed. The letters my be cited in the Committee letter of recommendation and will be attached to the Committee Letter. Recommendation guidelines and release forms are available in the Prelaw Office to help you make the request for individual letters.

2. Fill in and return the Prelaw Data form.

3. Sign and return your Waiver Statement form.

4. Give us a recent snapshot of yourself.

5. Complete the Prelaw Questionnaire. Take time with it. It may be the Committee Member's first introduction to you.

6. A graded writing sample. An essay or research paper that demonstrates your ability to express yourself clearly is best. The paper will be returned upon request.

7. Submit a copy of your personal statement when it is complete. This may be submitted after your interview if desired.


Have your LSAT scores reported directly to Johns Hopkins (check item 17 on the LSAT registration form) or bring in your scores after you receive them. It will also be helpful to bring in your LSDAS Master Law School Report that shows your transcript information. Space is provided on the Prelaw Questionnaire to list the schools to which you are applying. This list is a discussion point with the Prelaw Advisor. It is not an instruction to mail your recommendation packet.

Once your interview has been completed, the Committee letter of recommendation will be prepared and mailed to each school you have provided us an envelope for. All individual letters of recommendation will be enclosed along with the Committee recommendation. You will be responsible for completing and mailing your applications to law schools. It is best to have your application received by the law schools prior to the recommendation committee packet. Do not wait for our mailing to forward your materials.

Do not submit to us the "Dean's Statement" forms from the law schools, except that form required by Harvard University. We will send the Harvard form with your committee packet. In other cases, the committee letter takes the place of this form. However, include on your application a statement that a letter of recommendation will be sent on your behalf by the Committee on Law School Recommendations of The Johns Hopkins University, which includes materials requested on the "Dean's Statement."

If you have decided not to use the Recommendations Committee process, the "Dean's Statement" form will need to be processed by the Prelaw Office. Completion of the Questionnaire, a resume of activities and a copy of your personal essay will assist us in preparing the "Dean's Statement" in the most satisfactory manner. Please see Ms. Savage if you wish to utilize the Dean's Statement rather than the recommendations committee.

D. THE ART OF GATHERING RECOMMENDATIONS

For many students, it is a rude awakening to reach their junior or senior year and suddenly discover, "I don't know any professors." Throughout the campus community, you hear the echoed refrain: "Who am I going to ask for a recommendation?" Only you can answer this question, but there are steps you can take to make the search less painful.

One thing you can do is to look back over your record and pick out courses where you did

well and had some interaction with the professor. Law schools are looking for recommendations from people who have observed you in classroom situations and can comment on your intellectual abilities. How well do you express yourself? How do you approach problem solving? What about your integrity? What is the quality of your written work? A recommendation that can cover the points in detail, citing specific examples, will be appreciated by admissions committees.

Choose someone who knows your work. It makes much more sense to ask for a recommendation from an assistant professor or legislative assistant who knows you well than a department chair or Congressman who doesn't know you.

Remember the admonition, "Don't assume anything." This is the time to keep it in mind. For instance, don't assume that a recommender has enough information about you just from classroom encounters. Supply the writer with a list of your activities, a paper from the class, a copy of your resume and a copy of your transcript. Make an appointment with the recommender to discuss your interest in law school. Provide the recommender with an envelope with your name on it as well as Prelaw Office, Merryman Hall East. It is also helpful to put a date on the envelope as a reminder of when you would like the letter to be received.

Finally, don't assume that a recommendation will be automatically returned to the Prelaw Advising Office post-haste. If nothing is forthcoming within 2-3 weeks, gently nudge the recommenders and remind them that deadlines are approaching. Be fair to your recommenders. They are busy too. Give them a month's notice. When you talk to them be clear about your deadlines. If you wish to have your applications mailed by December 1, your Committee interview will need to take place by November 1, and your letters of recommendation will need to be in before the interview can be scheduled.

How much do recommendations actually count in the admissions process? The answer is a multiple choice ranging from quite heavily to not at all. If the numbers are not there, some schools don't even bother to read the recommendations. Other schools make a point of reading everything you submit and pay close attention to recommendations, particularly when you fall into the middle range of applicants. The point is, you never know how they will be viewed, so it's better to be safe than sorry.

E. THE ESSAY

Law schools have only two ways to look at you as a person instead of just another set of statistics: your personal essay and your recommendations.

The essay is the sleeper of the whole admissions process. All too often, candidates waste this golden opportunity to communicate directly with the decision makers at law schools. Both form and substance are important; your personal statement will be judged for clarity of expression and general writing ability as well as for its content. There are a few general mistakes to avoid:

DO NOT*

1. Do not write an essay on social conditions;

2. Do not tell the work you will do when you get a law degree, unless your past experiences have been a motivating force in your decision to go to law school;

3. Do not use the creative writing approach (i.e., sending a video tape of yourself or writing your essay in verse);

4. Do not write a travelogue of where you've been and what you've done, (unless you can show how you learned something from it about yourself);

5. Do not write assertiveness essays (I've always been successful, therefore have confidence in me).

For a better personal statement DO:

1. Do give examples of how you think, critically, systematically and analytically;

2. Do tell something interesting about your insight into yourself;

3. Do be fairly modest (not apologetic), describing adversity, interruption, failure. Be personal, write something about yourself, not designed to impress. Show your insights.

4. If your LSAT and G.P.A. don't match up, explain it (without bitterness, anger or defensiveness). This explanation is better handled on a separate piece of paper entitled "explanation of LSAT score" or "explanation of G.P.A."

*Notes from "How to Write a Personal Statement" - a lecture by Professor Robert Condlin, University of Maryland School of Law.

V. THE ACCEPTANCE

A. CHOOSING A LAW SCHOOL

Choosing where to go to law school can be even more difficult than deciding where to apply. Many students feel that the hardest part of the admissions process is selecting a school to attend once acceptances have been received. There are many factors to consider when it comes time to make a choice. For instance:

Consider the geographical area of the schools - will you be happy in a large city for the next three years? Do you want a school which emphasizes the law of the state in which it is located? Is the law school connected to a university? Are there opportunities to work in the area? Will you want to work in this area after law school? Your network of friends and professors as well as your placement office will provide you with referrals in the area after graduation.

Consider the cost - how expensive is the school? How easy is it to procure a loan? How much financial aid is available.?

Consider the law school faculty - their backgrounds, both educational and extracurricular. Are they big names or will they teach? Check the catalog course schedule and find out

how often the courses you are interested in are offered.

What is the student-faculty ratio? How accessible are the professors?

Consider the student body - how large is it? Are they all from the same general area? What schools do they represent? How competitive are they? What size is the law library?

Consider the law school placement office - how active is the office on behalf of students? What percent of graduates are placed in jobs? Where do they go? How many recruiters visit the school each year? Are they accessible to each student, or only to the top 10% of the class?

Consider the housing. Are you on-campus or off-campus. How much assistance will the school provide in obtaining housing?

Consider the curriculum - do you have the opportunity to take electives in areas that interest you? Are there clinical programs? Are there joint degree programs available? Can you take courses in other areas of the university?

For some of these questions there are no easy answers. The first place to look is the law school catalog. Although the catalogs become repetitious after awhile, they do provide a great deal of useful information about faculty and staff, the law school curriculum, financial aid and admissions procedures. A much more condensed version of the same material can be found in The Official Guide to U.S. Law Schools available through Law Services Publications (215) 968-1001, or by using the order form in the LSAT/LSDAS Registration and Information Book.

While both of these sources are excellent as far as they go, they do not go far enough to satisfy the curiosity of most students. They do not give a feel for the all-important "atmosphere" which can make a difference in the student's law school experience. This kind of nitty-gritty material must come from people who have actually attended a particular school. Where possible, it is important to visit the campus and talk to students. Ask to sit in on a class. Once you have been accepted, a law school should accommodate your questions. If their attitude is warm and hospitable during this period it is probably a fair indication that it will be a warm, hospitable environment for you as a student. If it isn't you may not want to go there. During the fall, many law school admissions officials visit the Hopkins campus. The annual Law School Fair hosts over 50 admissions representatives. These representatives are extremely valuable as a means to learn more about a given institution. Also consider contacting Hopkins friends and acquaintances that attend law schools you are interested in. They may be your best resource. The Prelaw Advisor also should be regarded as a resource, since she has contact with both law students and admissions representatives.

B. EARLY DECISION

Several law schools encourage applicants to apply early. In many cases the deadlines for Early Decision or Early Action are in October. As opposed to undergraduate early decision rules, many law schools do not view an early application as binding, if the applicant gains acceptance. One exception to this is the Early Decision application to Columbia University School of Law. If you apply to that program, you are making a commitment to attend Columbia if you are accepted. I strongly believe that applying early benefits the applicant in many ways, the most important is the opportunity to get a thorough reading of the application while admissions personnel are fresh. I am not as concerned that applicants meet Early Decision/Action deadlines, if a serious effort is made to complete the application process in November. If a decision is made to apply Early Decision/Action it is important to remember that your committee interview must be scheduled a minimum of 4 weeks prior to the deadline. In addition, please review the application material carefully for other requirements if you are interested in this option.

C. DEFERRED ADMISSION

If you are admitted to law school and suddenly discover that you have won a fellowship to study abroad for a year or you have gotten a job offer you can't refuse, can you defer admission? That depends on the policy of each school to which you apply. The general rule is that law schools like students to apply for the year when they plan to matriculate. However, they are also interested in having students who have varied experiences. If you wish to request a deferral after acceptance, write to the school and explain why the other opportunity seems most appropriate. The admissions committee could grant your deferral request or require that you reapply.

D. DELAYED APPLICATION

Is it advisable to take one or more years off from school before entering law school?

Often students wish to delay entrance to law school for a year or two. They are tired of the academic grind and wish to work before they begin to study law. This will certainly not hurt you in the admissions process, and may well be a plus. Many law schools prefer an applicant with a year or two of employment, volunteer work, foreign travel, or even graduate work ; such applicants tend to be more mature and successful in their law study. You also will have the advantage of having your senior year grades counted in your LSDAS-computed G.P.A., and these grades are usually higher.

You should not be afraid of delaying your law school applications for one or two years because you desire to do something else worthwhile. You will probably be better off for it. There is probably nothing negative about taking a "year off." In fact, some feel that people who take time off after college are better prepared and perform better than their classmates just out of college. Keep in mind, the average entering age for law school is almost 26 years old.

E. FINANCIAL AID

Money for law school is available, in the form of scholarships, grants, work-study, and loans. Most students finance their education through loans, either from the federal government or private sources. The amount of aid you receive and the form it takes is largely determined by the law schools; therefore, the law schools to which you are applying should be your primary source of information. Review the brochure Financial Aid for Law School: A Preliminary Guide, published by Law Services for a broad summary of financial aid information. Additional resources are also listed in that publication.

In applying for financial aid file all the required financial aid forms and pay close attention to deadlines. Most schools will not look at a file until it is complete. A good deadline to consider is December 1. Be sure to check catalogs to find out exactly what is required by the schools to which you are applying for financial aid. In an effort to attract a balanced, competitive student body, many law schools may offer grants or financial assistance as an incentive for your attendance. It is important to weigh all your options when your letter of acceptance is received.

F. BAR REQUIREMENTS

Another step in the decision-making process is determining the bar requirements for admission to the bar in the state in which you wish to practice. Some states require individuals to file a statement of intention to study law shortly after starting classes. To find out about registration requirements for particular states, write to the Supreme Court of the state in question, or to the National Conference of Bar Examiners, Suite 1025, 333 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60601. Once you enroll in law school you will be advised about meeting standards for admission to the bar. Most law schools will readily give you information regarding their students' success in passing the bar examination.

G. JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMS

Joint programs involve the simultaneous pursuit of two separate courses of graduate study under a combined degree arrangement. Law schools have developed structured programs within their own university or in conjunction with another college or university. Programs at the master's level are numerous. A few select schools offer joint programs at the Ph.D. level as well. Applications for joint degree programs must be made to each of the schools involved, and admission is based on acceptance by both schools. One may be accepted at the start of law school studies or at the beginning of the second year. Normally about four years are required to complete the requirements for joint programs at the master's level. Extensive listings of joint degree programs are on file in the Prelaw Office.

H. PLACEMENT AFTER LAW SCHOOL

In choosing a law school it is wise to inquire about that school's placement services. Many schools try to accommodate employers who wish to interview on campus, and several also offer individual and group counseling. Some placement offices also handle summer and part-time jobs. One should also find out for a given school: 1) the number and range of employers who interview students from private law firms, the public sector, and corporate or business organizations; 2) the number of judicial clerkships awarded to its students, and 3) a student's accessibility to employers.

VI. PRE-LAW READING LIST

The following list of prelaw readings offers prospective law students an overview of selected classics and current titles in certain subjects: Law School and Legal Education, the Legal Profession, Biography, Jurisprudence and Legal Issues, and Financing Law School. This list should not be construed as an official bibliography; it is beyond the scope of this publication to provide any sort of definitive catalog of prelaw readings.

Some of these books have already withstood the test of time, and are as relevant today as when they were first written and published, generations ago. Examples are Richard Kluger's Simple Justice -- a rare glimpse into the private workings and deliberations of the Supreme Court -- and Karl Llewellyn's The Bramble Bush -- a classic study of how legal education shapes our legal institutions.

Other, more recent titles simply reflect the most current writing on the subjects listed above and are not necessarily recommended simply because they appear on this list. It will be up to you to search out the titles that pique your interest and make your own determination of their worth. The aim of our list is merely to give you a head start in locating the newest published titles in the field. We hope that those interested in pursuing legal studies will find the issues raised and the ideas discussed in these works helpful in making the decision to choose law as a career.

Law School and Legal Education

Barber, David H. Winning in Law School: Stress Reduction. 2d ed. Dillon, CO: Spectra, 1986.

Bay, Monica. Careers in Civil Litigation. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division, 1990.

Bell, Susan J. Full Disclosure: Do You Really Want to Be a Lawyer? Princeton, NJ: Peterson's Guides, 1989.

Bell, Susan J. Interviewing for Success and Satisfaction. Chicago: American Bar Association/Young Lawyers Division,1989.

Calamari, John D., and Joseph M. Perillo, eds. How to Thrive in Law School. Pelham Manor, NY: Hook Mountain Press,1984.

Carter, Lief H. Reason in Law. Boston: Little, Brown and Company,1988.

Chase, William C. The American Law School and the Rise of Administrative Government. Madison, Wl: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982.

Curry, Boykin, ed. Essays That Worked for Law Schools: 35 Essays from Successful Applications to the Nation's Top Law Schools. New York: Fawcett Book Group, 1991.

Deaver, Jeff. The Complete Law School Companion. New York: John Wiley

& Sons, 1984.

Delaney, John. How to Do your Best on Law School Exams. 2d ed. Bogota, NJ:

John Delaney Publications, 1988.

Directory of Law School Joint Degree Programs. 2d ed. Washington, DC: Federal Reports, Inc., 1991.

Dutile, Fernand N., ed. Legal Education and Lawyer Competency: Curricula for Change. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981

Dworkin, Elizabeth, Jack Himmelstein, and Howard Lesnick. Becoming a Lawyer: AHumanistic Perspective on Legal Education and Professionalism. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing, 1989.

Farnsworth, Edward A. An Introduction to the Legal System of the United States. 2d ed. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1983.

Gillers, Stephen, ed. Looking at Law School: A Student Guide from the Society of American Law Teachers. 3d ed. NAL/Dutton, 1990.

Goldfarb, Sally F., and Edward A. Adams. Inside the Law Schools: A Guide by Students for Students. 5th ed. New York: Plume, 1991.

Goodrich, Chris. Anarchy and Elegance: Confessions of a Journalist at Yale Law School. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991.

Hegland, Kenney F. Introduction to the Study and Practice of Law in a Nutshell.

St. Paul, MN: West Publishing, 1983.

Kaplin, William A. The Concepts and Methods of Constitutional Law. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Kelman, Mark. A Guide to Critical Legal Studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987

Kenny, Phillip H. Studying Law. 2d ed. Salem, NH: Butterworth Legal Publishers, 1991. Lasson, Kenneth, and Sheldon Margulies. Learning Law: The Mastery of Legal Logic. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1992.

Legal Education and Professional Development - An Educational Continuum. Report of The Task Force on Law Schools and the Profession: Narrowing the Gap. Chicago: American Bar Association, Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar,

July 1992.

Llewellyn, Karl N. The Bramble Bush: On Our Law and its Study. rev.ed. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications 1981.

Marke, Julius J., and Edward J. Bander, eds. Deans' List of Recommended Reading

for Pre-Law and Law Students: Selected by the Deans and Faculties of American Law Schools. 2d ed. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1984.

Martinson, Thomas H., J.D., and David P. Waldherr, J.D. Getting Into Law School: Strategies for the 90s. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Mayfield, Craig K. Reading Skills for Law Students. Charlottesville, VA: Michie Co., 1980

Moliterno, James E., and Fredric Lederer. An Introduction to Law, Law Study, and the Lawyer's Role. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1991.

Re, Edward D., and Joseph R. Re. Law Students' Manual on Legal Writing and Oral Argument. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1991.

Roth, George. Slaying the Law School Dragon: How to Survive--and Thrive--in First-Year Law School. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991.

Simenhogg, Mark. ed. My First Year As A Lawyer. New York: Walker and Company, 1994.

So You Want to be a Lawyer: A Practical Guide. Newtown, PA: Law School Admission Service, Inc., 1993.

Stevens, Robert. Law SchooI: Legal Education in America from the 1850s to the 1980s. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Stover, Robert V. Making It and Breaking It: The Fate of Public Interest Commitment During Law School. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Swygert, Michael I., and Robert Batey, eds. Maximizing the Law School Experience: A Collection of Essays. St. Petersburg, FL: Stetson University College of Law,1983.

Turow, Scott. One L.: An Inside Account of Life in the First Year at Harvard Law School. New York: Penguin Books, 1978.

Vanderbilt, Arthur T. Law School: Briefing for a Legal Education. New York: Penguin Books, 1981.

Williams, Glanville. Learning the Law: A Book for the Guidance of the Law Student.

11th ed. London: Stevens, 1982.

Wydick, Richard C. Plain English for Lawyers. 2d ed. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1985.


Legal Profession

Abel, Richard L. American Lawyers. NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Arron, Deborah. Running From the Law: Why Good Lawyers Are Getting Out of the Legal Profession. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1991.

Aaron, Deborah. What Can You do with a Law Degree? A Lawyer's Guide to Career Alternatives Inside, Outside, and Around the Law. Seattle: Niche Pres, 1992.

Caplan, Lincoln. Skadden: Inside the Business of Law in America. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1993.

Bailey, F. Lee. To Be A Trial Lawyer. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985.

Carey, William T. Law Students: How to Get a Job When There Aren't Any. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press,1986.

Couric, Emily. The Trial Lawyers: The Nation's Top Litigators Tell How They Win. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988.

Delaney, John. Learning Legal Reasoning: Briefing, Analysis and Theory, rev. ed. Bogota, NJ: John Delaney Publications, 1987.

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. Women in Law. 2d ed. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Foonberg, Jay G. How to Start and Build a Law Practice. 3d ed. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division, 1991.

Galanter, Marc, and Thomas Palay. Tournament of Lawyers: The Transformation of the Big Law Firm. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Glendon, Mary Ann. A Nation Under Lawyers: How the Crisis in the Legal Profession is Transforming American Society. New York: Farrar, Straus &

Girous, 1994.

Harrington, Mona, Women Lawyers: Rewriting the Rules. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

Henslee, William D. Careers in Entertainment Law. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division, 1990.

Kelly, Michael J. Lives of Lawyers: Journeys in the Organizations of Practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.

Killoughey, Donna M. ed. Breaking Traditions: Work Alternatives for Lawyers. Chicago: American Bar Association, Section of Law Practice Management, 1993.

Kronman, Anthony T. The Lost Lawyer: Failing Ideals of the Legal Profession. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Belknap Press), 1993.

Linowitz, Sol M., with Martin Mayer. The Betrayed Profession: Lawyering at the End of the Twentieth Century. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.

Luney, Percy R., Jr. Careers in Natural Resources and Environmental Law. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division,1987. Mayer, Martin. The Lawyers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Moll, Richard W. The Lure of the Law: Why People Become Lawyers, and What the Profession Does to Them. New York: Penguin Books, 1990.

Munneke, Gary A. The Legal Career Guide: From Law Student to Lawyer. Chicago: American Bar Association Career Series, 1992.

O'Neill, Suzanne B., and Catherine Gerhauser Sparkman. From Law School to Law Practice: The New Associate's Guide. Philadelphia: American Law Institute/American Bar Association Committee on Continuing Professional Education, 1989.

Shaffer, Thomas L. with Mary M. Shaffer. American Lawyers and Their Communities: Ethics in the Legal Profession. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991.

Shropshire, Kenneth. Careers in Sports Law. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division, 1990.

Stewart, James B. The Partners. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.

Thorner, Abbie Willard, ed. Now Hiring: Government Jobs for Lawyers (1990-1991 edition). Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division,1990.

Utley, Frances, and Gary A. Munneke. From Law Student to Lawyer: A Career Planning Manual. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division, 1984.

Utley, Frances, with Gary A. Munneke. Nonlegal Careers for Lawyers: In the Private Sector. 2d ed. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division,1991.

Wayne, Ellen. Careers in Labor Law. Chicago: American Bar Association/Law Student Division,1985.

Biography

Auchincloss, Louis. Life, Law and Letters: Essays and Sketches. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.,1979.

Baker, Leonard. John Marshall: A Life in Law. New York: Macmillan, 1974.

Barth, Alan. Prophets with Honor: Great Dissents and Great Dissenters in the Supreme Court. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.

Darrow, Clarence. The Story of My Life. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,1932.

Davis, Deane C. Justice in the Mountains: Stories & Tales by a Vermont Country Lawyer. Shelburne, VT: New England Press, 1980.

Davis, Lenwood G. I Have a Dream: The Life and Times of Martin Luther King. Westport, CT: Negro Universities Press, 1973.

Davis, Michael D. and Hunter R. Clark. Thurgood Marshall: Warrior at the Bar, Rebel on the Bench. New York: Birch Lane Press/Carol Publishing Group, 1993.

Douglas, William O. Go East Young Man: The Early Years. New York: Random House, 1974.

Douglas, William O. Court Years, 1939-1975: The Autobiography of William 0. Douglas. New York: Random House, 1980.

Dunne, Gerald T. Hugo Black and the Judicial Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1977

Goldman, Roger with David Gallen. Justice William J. Brennan, Jr.: Freedom First. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1994.

Griffith, Kathryn. Judge Learned Hand and the Role of the Federal Judiciary. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973.

Gunther, Gerald. Learned Hand: The Man and the Judge. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

Jeffries, John, Jr. Justice Lewis F. Powell. New York: Scribner, 1994.

Kahlenberg, Richard D. Broken Contract: A Memoir of Harvard Law School. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1992.

Lynn, Conrad J. There is a Foundation: The Autobiography of a Civil Rights Lawyer. Westport, CN: Hill & Company, 1978.

Marke, Julius J. The Holmes Reader. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications,1964.

Murphy, Bruce Allen. The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Nizer, Louis. Reflections Without Mirrors: An Autobiography of the Mind. New York: Doubleday, 1978.

Noonan, John T., Jr. Persons and Masks of the Law: Cardozo, Holmes, Jefferson, and Wythe as Makers of the Masks. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1976.

Rowan, Carl T. Dream Makers, Dream Breakers. The World of Justice Thurgood Marshall. Boston: Little Brown & Company, 1993.

Schwartz, Bernard. Super Chief, Earl Warren and His Supreme Court-A Judicial Biography. New York: New York University Press, 1983.

Simon, James F. Independent Journey: The Life Of William O. Douglas. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

Thomas, Evan. The Man to See: Edward Bennett Williams, Ultimate Insider; Legendary Trial Lawyer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Urofsky, Melvin I. Louis D. Brandeis and the Progressive Tradition. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1981.

Westin, Alan F. Autobiography of the Supreme Court: Off-the-Bench Commentary by the Justices. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

White, G. Edward. Earl Warren: A Public Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Wigdor, David. Roscoe Pound: Philosopher of Law. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1974.


Jurisprudence and Legal Issues

Bodenhamer, David J. and James E. Ely, Jr., eds. The Bill of Rights in Modern America. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Bickel, Alexander M. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics. 2d ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Bickel, Alexander M. The Morality of Consent. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.

Burns, James MacGregor, and Stewart Burns. The People's Charter: Pursuing Rights in America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

Cahn, Edmond. The Moral Decision: Right and Wrong in the Light of American Law. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1955.

Cardozo, Benjamin N. The Nature of the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921.

Dershowitz, Alan M. The Best Defense. New York: Random House, 1982.

Dershowitz, Alan M. Taking Liberties: A Decade of Hard Cases, Bad Laws, and Bum Raps. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1988.

Finkel, Norman J. Insanity On Trial. New York: Plenum, 1988.

Greenberg, Jack, Crusaders in the Courts: How a Dedicated Band of Lawyers Fought for the Civil Rights Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Guinier, Lani. The Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fairness in Representative Democracy. New York: Martin Kessler Books (The Free Press), 1994.

Irons, Peter and Stephanie Guitton, eds. May It Please the Court: The Most Significant Oral Arguments Made Before the Supreme Court Since 1955. [audiocassette]. New York: New Press, 1993.

Howard, A.E. Dick. The Road from Runnymeade: Magna Carta and Constitutionalism in America. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, 1968.

Irons, Peter. The Courage of their Convictions: Sixteen Americans Who Fought Their Way to the Supreme Court. New York: Penguin, 1990.

Kairys, David, ed. The Politics of Law: A Progressive Critique. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Kirk, Russell. The Roots of American Order. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University Press, 1981.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown vs. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,1976.

Konefsky, Samuel J. The Legacy of Holmes and Brandeis: A Study in the Influence of Ideas. New York: DeCapo Press, 1974.

Lee, Rex E. A Lawyer Looks at the Constitution. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1981.

Lewis, Anthony. Gideon's Trumpet. New York: Random House, 1964.

Lewis, Anthony. Make No Law: The Sullivan Case and the First Amendment. New York: Random House, 1991.

Pfeffer, Leo. Religion, State and the Burger Court. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1984.

Pound, Roscoe. Law and Morals. South Hackensack, NJ: Rothman Reprints, 1969.

Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court: How It Was, How It Is. New York: Quill Press, 1987.

Rosenberg, Gerald N. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Savage, David. Turning Right: The Making of the Rehnquist Supreme Court. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.

Shapiro, Joseph P. No Pity: People with Disabilities Forgoing a New Civil Rights Movement. New York: Random House,1993.

Simon, James F. The Antagonists: Hugo Black, Felix Frankfurter and Civil Liberties in Modern America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989.

Sobol, Richard B. Bending the Law: The Story of the Dalkon Shield Bankruptcy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Spence, Gerry. With Justice for None. New York: Penguin, 1990.

Treanor, Richard Bryant. We Overcame: The Story of Civil Rights for Disabled People. Falls Church, VA: Regal Direct Publishing, 1993.

Tribe, Laurence H. God Save This Honorable Court: How the Choice of Supreme Court Justices Shapes Our History. New York: Penguin/Mentor,1986.

Tushnet, Mark V. Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936-1961. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Unger, Roberto M. Knowledge and Politics. New York: The Free Press, 1984.

van den Haag, Ernest, and John P. Conrad. The Death Penalty: A Debate. New York: Plenum, 1983.

Westin, Alan F. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Law Case: Youngstown Sheet & TubeCo. v. Sawyer. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Williams, Patricia J. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Wishman, Seymour. Anatomy of a Jury. New York: Penguin, 1987.


Financing Law School

The Black Collegian's Guide to Graduate and Professional Fellowship for Minority Students. 5th ed. New Orleans, LA: The Black Collegian, 1994.

Cantrell, Karen and Denise Wallen. Funding for Law: Legal Education, Research and Study. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1991.

Cassidy, Daniel. The Graduate Scholarship Book: The Complete Guide to Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Loans for Graduate and Professional Study. 2nd ed. National Scholarship Reference Service, Prentice-Hall, 1990.

Cronin, Joseph Marr, and Sylvia Quarles Simmons, eds. Student Loans: Risks and Realities. Dover, MA: Auburn House Publishing Co., 1987.

Johnson, Willis L. Directory of Special Programs for Minority Group Members: Career

Information Services, Employment Skills Banks, Financial Aid Sources. 5th edition.

Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1990.

Financial Aid for Minorities in Business and Law. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press, 1994.

Kirby, Deborah M., ed. Scholarships, Fellowships, and Loans: 1994-1995. 10th edition. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc.

The Loan Repayment Assistance Report. Washington, DC: National Association for Public Interest Law, 1993.

McWade, Patricia. Financing Graduate School. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's Guides, 1993.

Schlachter, Gail Ann. Financial Aid for the Disabled and their Families, 1994-96.

San Carlos, CA: Reference Service Press.

Schlachter, Gail Ann. Directory of Financial Aids for Minorities, 1993-95. San Carlos, CA: Reference Service Press.

Schlachter, Gail Ann. Financial Aid for Veterans, Military Personnel, and Their Dependents, 1993-95. San Carlos, CA: Reference Service Press.

Schlachter, Gail Ann. Directory of Financial Aids for Women, 1993-95. San Carlos,

CA: Reference Service Press.

Williams, Franklin A. and Mark Fischer. The Law Student's Guide to Scholarships and Grants. New York: Scovill, Paterson, Inc., 1994.














The Prelaw Office gratefully acknowledges the following institutions for information referred to in this booklet: Tufts University Prelaw Office, the University of Dayton School of Law, Boston University Prelaw Office, the North East Association of Prelaw Advisors, and the LSAT/LSDAS Registration Book.