University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Lecture #1, Thursday, 23 January 2014:

Europe in 1648 and some preliminary thoughts on the

Scientific Revolution

 

Key Terms:  Thirty Years’ War, Peace of Westphalia (1648), Witch hunt craze; Key Terms:  William Shakespeare, Don Quijote de la Mancha (1605-1615), Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543), Galileo (1564-1642), Heliocentrism, William Harvey (1587-1657), Réné Descartes (1596-1650), Francis Bacon(1561-1626)

 

I.                 The Thirty Years’ War, 1618-48

A.              Religious conflict that spills into politics

B.              Atrocities of War

C.              The Peace of Westphalia and Beyond

                                                           i.      Decentralized German States

                                                        ii.      Powerful French Crown; Weak Spanish State

II.              The onset of crises

A.              Peasant and popular revolts in France, Austria, Hungary, Iberia

B.              Demographic and Economic Crises

C.              The witch hunt craze

III.           The 17th Century as an exciting moment in European Culture and Art

A.              Great Baroque Art

B.              A “Golden Age” of Literature

IV.          The Scientific Revolution

A.              Background (Ancient and Medieval authorities)

B.              Scientific Advancements in the 16th-18th Centuries

                                                           i.      The Heliocentric Universe over the Geocentric (Copernicus, Kepler, and especially Galileo)

                                                        ii.      Isaac Newton and the Laws of Physics

                                                     iii.      Advances in Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine

                                                     iv.      Bacon and Descartes:  Rationalism, Deductive Reasoning, and a new understanding of humans and nature

V.             The Importance of the Scientific Revolution

 

 

 

What did we learn?

·       The 30 Years’ War began as a religious conflict that transformed into a devastating political Continental war that tore up much of Central Europe and changed the balance of power (France the power of Europe)

·       Even before the War, social and political crises made for an uncertain and dangerous world.

·       That despite great terror and tragedy in the 17th century, it was also a magical time in culture and the arts

·       A survey of the major shifts in and contributors of the very gradual Scientific Revolution (heliocentricism over geocentrism, natural laws of physics, understandings of the body as well as knowledge)

·       That the Scientific Revolution’s ramifications are wide-ranging and laid foundations for the Enlightenment as well as the technological and military superiority of Europeans over non-Westerners).


University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Lecture #2, Tuesday, 28 January 2014:

Scientific Revolution, continued, and Early Modern Absolutism

 

Key Terms:  Réné Descartes (1596-1650), Francis Bacon(1561-1626), Absolutism, Louis XIV (1643-1715), Fronde, Versailles,

 

I.      Bacon and Descartes:  Rationalism, Deductive

Reasoning, and a new understanding of humans and

nature

II.     The Importance of the Scientific Revolution

III.    Absolutism Defined: a form of government in which

        sovereign power or ultimate authority rested in the

        hands of a monarch who claimed to rule by divine

        right and was responsible only to God.

IV.   France and the Rise of THE model of Absolutism

A.     Antecedents of the Strong Monarchy: The Fronde and Cardinals Mazarin and Richelieu.

B.     Louis XIV, the Sun King

V.    Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe

  

 

What did we learn:

·       You should be able to define Absolutism and describe examples of 17th Century manifestations of the political form.

·       That Louis XIV represented a particularly poignant and clear example of European Absolutism, but even still, he wasn’t particularly able to be autocratic.

 

 


University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Lecture #3, Thursday, 30 January 2014:

The English Revolution and Early Modern Constitutionalism

 

Key Terms:  Parliament, Oliver Cromwell, Glorious Revolution (1688), Bill of Rights

 

I.      An Alternative to Absolutism: Constitutional Monarchy

A.     English historical developments from Queen Elizabeth to its Glorious Revolution

1.     James I (1603-1625) and Charles I (1625-1649) battle with Parliament

2.     Civil War (1642-1648), and Cromwell’s dictatorship (1649-1658)

3.     Continued tension in the Restored Monarchies of Charles II (1660-1685) and James II (1685-1688)

B.     The Glorious Revolution (1688) and Bill of

 Rights

II.     Important Intellectual Responses to the politico-historical developments in 17th Century England

A.     Thomas Hobbes and his bleak view of humankind in nature

B.     John Locke, optimism, equalitarianism and Constitutionalism

 

What did we learn?:

·       That 17th Century England emerged from ferocious civil war and Cromwell’s dictatorship to emerge with an alternative political form to Absolutism:  Constitutionalism.

·       We reviewed Hobbs’ and Locke’s interpretations of political and historical developments in England as well as their understandings of human nature and the “Social Contract”

 


University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Tuesday, 4 February 2014:

The Atlantic System and the World Economy

 

Key Words: Atlantic System, plantation, consumer revolution, cacao

 

I.      Some major commodities of the Atlantic System

        A.     Tobacco and Coffee

        B.     A more detailed look on cacao (from whence we get

 Chocolate

        C.     The Atlantic System and the consumer revolution

II.     The Atlantic System as a nexus of the Cultures and Race

III.    The Atlantic System as a nexus of the Exchange of Ideas

        A.     Politics and Revolutions

        B.     Religious Ideas

IV.    Conclusion:  the Atlantic System laid the foundations for European political control of the Western World

 

 

What did we learn?

  • That we can use the history of commodities (like chocolate) as windows to the behaviors, transformations, and logistics of the Atlantic System
  • That the Atlantic Trade System served as a nexus for the study of not only economic relations but also cultural, racial, political and religious ideas

University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Thursday, 6 February 2014:

Toward the Origins of the Enlightenment

 

Key Words: Peter the Great, westernization, The Enlightenment, philosophes, Freemasonry, Voltaire (1694-1778), deism

 

I.          The Balance of Power in 18th Century Europe

A.               The limits of French Absolutism after Louis XIV and the Rise of England

B.               Russia under Peter the Great; Rising Prussia, ebbing Sweden

C.               The Importance of Diplomacy

II.         What do we mean by Enlightenment?

A.         Utility of Reason

B.         Enthusiasm for Science

C.         Firm Belief/Optimism in Progress

III.        Early Writers and Ideas of the Enlightenment

A.         Bernard de Fontanelle makes science accessible

B.         Pierre Bayle’s criticisms of Intolerance and

religious fanaticism

C.         John Locke on epistemology

D.               Travel accounts and travel literature like Montesquieu’s Persian Letters (1721)

E.               Mary Astell on the subjugation of women

IV.                The Age and Society of the philosophes

A.         Professional elites and professional spaces

B.         Freemasonry

 

What did we learn?

·        We have a working definition of the Enlightenment and its three major tenets/beliefs/characteristics

·        We learned about pre-Enlightenment or early Enlightenment writers and trends (like Locke and the Tabula Rasa and travel literature that challenged basic understandings Europeans had of themselves).

·        We learned a bit about the philosophes and their world as well as about some of the major figures of the Enlightenment.

 


University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Tuesday, 11 February 2014:

The Enlightenment and Romanticism’s Response

 

Key Terms:  Adam Smith (1723-1790), Jean Jacques Rousseau ( ), Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Romanticism

 

I.      Highlights of important points from the 2/6 Snow-canceled lecture:

A. 18th Century pursuit of a “Balance of Power” leads to numerous wars and dislocation

B. Limits to absolutist rule could include external powers going to war with Louis XIV of France, or the structural problems of Peter the Great’s westernization in massive Russia

C. Broadly defining the Enlightenment (3 general tenets):

1. Utility of Reason

2. Enthusiasm for Science

3. Firm belief in progress

D. Early elements and thinkers of the Enlightenment

1. Deism

2. Folks thinking outside of the proverbial box like a

    Montesquieu, Voltaire, or a Mary Astell)

3. Professional and non-Professional spaces (salons) of the Enlightenment, including Freemason Lodges

II.     Titans of the later-Enlightenment

A.          Adam Smith and Laissez Faire economics

B.     Jean-Jacque Rousseau revisits the social contract

C.            Immanuel Kant and duty

III.    Immediate Responses to the Enlightenment

A.               Religious Revivals

1.               Recall Catholic Contexts (Jansenism, Quietism)

2.               Jewish Hasidism

3.               Methodism

B.               Romanticism and an Appeal to Emotion and Feeling

1.   In Art and Music

2.   In Literature (Göethe’s The Sorrows of Young Werther)

 

What did we learn?

        That Rousseau added a twist to Locke’s Social Contract by asserting the importance of the “General Will.”

        That Kant boiled down the Enlightenment message to doing good, and doing good for the sake of being dutiful

        That religious folk and institutions were threatened by the unfolding of the Enlightenment

        That religious revivals and Romanticism were immediate responses to the impersonal and intellectual character of the Enlightenment.

        You should have a sense of some of the changes that brought on early Industrialization and were brought on by industrialization.


 

University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Thursday, 13 February 2014:

Romanticism’s Response to the Enlightenment, continued,

And the Birth of the USA

 

Key Terms: proto-industrialization, industrialization, Enlightened Despot, Thomas Jefferson

 

I.                  Romanticism’s appeal to Emotion and Feeling in Art, Music, and Literature

II.     Early proto-industrialization and Industrialization in England

II.                Political Centralizing Tendencies on the Continent

A.               The Age of Enlightenened Despots

B.               Persistence of War and International Rivalries

1.   The War of Austrian Succession, 1740-8

2.   The Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763

III.             The Beginnings of the Revolutionary Era:  The American Revolution

A.               Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence (1776)

B.               War between England and Colonists with their French and Spanish allies

C.               The Early United States of America

 

 

What did we learn?

        That industrialization in England and elsewhere was preceded by proto-industrialization or an expansion of the “cottage industries”

        You should have a sense of some of the changes that brought on early Industrialization and were brought on by industrialization.

        You learned that Enlightened monarchs were absolutist leaders who were enthused with the ideas of the Enlightenment and applied them to improve and centralize their rule.

        That the late 18th century was a traumatic time of war and tremendous international rivalries between the powers

        That Thomas Jefferson and the US founding fathers were inspired by the works of the Enlightenment, especially Locke, when they declared independence from England

        That the USA may not have existed without the help of France and Spain.

        We got a quick glimpse of the early United States of America


University of New Mexico/Spring Semester 2014

History 102:  Western Civilization since 1648

 

Tuesday, 18 February 2014:

The French Revolution, 1787-1793 (Part One)

 

Key Terms:  Estates General, National Assembly, Guillotine, Committee for Public Safety, Maximilian Robespierre,

 

I.                  Discussion of the Midterm Study Guide (Remember to buy and bring a clean, unused blue book to lecture on Tuesday, 25 February 2014). 

II.                The early United States of America, in brief

A. Revolt in the British American colonies

B. War of American Independence

C. The Early American Republic, i.e. the USA

III.             Precursors to the French Revolution

A.               European Rebellions in the Wake of the USA’s birth (Netherlands, Austrian Netherlands, Poland)

B.               Louis XVI’s France to the Establishment of the National Assembly (June 1789)

IV.            Liberal Phase of the Revolution (1789-92)

A.               Major accomplishments/activities of the National Assembly

B.               Establishment of the Constitutional Monarchy (September 1791)

 

What did we learn?

·        We can situate the French Revolution and especially its outbreak within a Global wave of revolutions, potentially inspired by the American Independence from Britain.

·        We can now talk about the Liberal and Radical phases of the French Revolution and the Major developments in each of these as well as who were the major players in each phase trying to accomplish?

·        We have an appreciation for the magnitude of the Revolution and the chaos it unleashed.

 

 

 

·        We can talk about the enthusiasm found in the radical phase of the revolution and perhaps also explain the horrible violence and oppression that informed Robespierre and the Committee for Public Safety as they sought to protect the revolution from its (perceived) enemies.

 


A General Timeline of the French Revolution

National Assembly (1789-1791)

(Constituent Assembly)                                                                     1789-1791

Meeting of the Estates General                                                        5 May 1789

Formation of a National Assembly                                             17-20 June 1789

Storming of the Bastille                                                                14 July 1789

Great Fear                                                                                 Summer 1789

Abolition of Feudalism/Seigneurial jurisdictions                             4 August 1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen                               26 August 1789

Civil Constitution of the Clergy                                                     12 July 1790

Attempted flight of the Louis XVI                                                      June 1791

 

Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)

French declaration of war against Austria                                       20 April 1792

Attack on the royal palace                                                             August 1792

 

National Convention (1792-1795)

Abolition of the monarchy                                                   21 September 1792

Execution of Louis XVI                                                             21 January 1793

Decree of Universal mobilization of the Nation                            23 August 1793

Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette                                       16 October 1793

Committee of Public Safety created, which unleashes

the Reign of Terror                                                        December 1793

Execution of Robespierre                                                              27 July 1793

 

Directory (1795-1799)

Constitution of 1795                                                                  22 August 1795

Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup d’état                                     9-10 November 1799


 

 

 

 

From the Decree of Universal Mobilization of the Nation, 23 August 1793:

 

Young men will fight, young men are called to conquer.  Married men will forge arms, transport military baggage and guns and prepare food supplies.  Women, who at long last are to take their rightful place in the revolution and follow their true destiny, will forget their futile tasks: their delicate hands will work at making clothes for soldiers, they will make tents and they will extend their tender care to shelters where the defenders of the [nation] will receive the help that their would require.  Children will make lint of old cloth.  It is for them that we are fighting: children, those beings destined to gather all the fruits of the revolution, will raise their pure hands toward the skies.  And old men, performing their missions again, as of yore, will be guided to the public squares of the cities where they will kindle the courage of young warriors and preach the doctrines of hate for kings and the unity of the Republic.[1]

 



Thursday, 20 February 2014:

The French Revolution, 1793-1801 (Part Two)

 

 Key Words: guillotine, Committee of Public Safety, Reign of Terror, Robespierre, Directory, Napoleon Bonaparte, Toussaint L’Ouverture (1743-1803)

 

I.      The Radical Phase of the Revolution,

        1792-1794

A.     The Execution of the King (21 January 1793)

        and the Queen (16 October 1793)

B.     The Committee of Public Safety, and the Reign

        of Terror

C.     The Fall of Robespierre, Summer of 1794

II.     The Napoleonic Phase of the Revolution

A.              The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte through the Military

B.              Ending the Terror:  The Directory assumes control 1795

C.              Napoleon’s Dictatorship, 1799-ff

III.    The French Revolution in St. Domingue

A.              The Rise of Toussaint L’Ouverture

B.              From Slave Revolt to the Founding of Haiti

 

What did we learn?

·        We can talk about the enthusiasm found in the radical phase of the revolution and perhaps also explain the horrible violence and oppression that informed Robespierre and the Committee for Public Safety as they sought to protect the revolution from its (perceived) enemies.

·        You learned about Napoleon Bonaparte’s background and rise through the military eventually leading to his dictatorship in 1799

·        That the ideals of the French Revolution resonated to St. Domingue and to the partisans of Toussaint L’Ouverture who were able to establish the first independent republic/state after the establishment of the USA.



[1]L. Gershoy, Ther Era of the French Revolution (Princeton, NJ, 1957), 157.