Periphery, Frontier, or Their Own Place: Large Classic Mimbres Sites beyond the Mimbres Valley Heartland
Shelbie A. Bartlett and Patricia A. Gilman, University of Oklahoma
Sites beyond the heartland of an area are stereotypically relatively small, occupied seasonally or intermittently, and serve a support function to sites in the heartland. We show that Classic period (A.D. 1000-1130) puebloan sites beyond the Mimbres Valley heartland in southwestern New Mexico were as large as those in the valley, although they were part of different settlement patterns. We examine the implications of these large sites and the settlement patterns for the identity of people living to the south and west of the Mimbres Valley, and we suggest that they had an identity that was both within but separate from the people in the valley.
Scrutinizing a Ubiquitous Tool in the Southwest Archaeologist's Toolbox: The Effects of Sampling and Regional Variation in Ceramic Seriation on the Interpretation of Population Movement and Demography
Gregson Schachner, University of California, Los Angeles
Matthew A. Peeples, Center for Desert Archaeology; University of Arizona
Southwest archaeologists frequently utilize ceramic seriations to examine the chronology of surface-recorded archaeological sites. In practice, seriations are often conducted on a project-specific basis and proceed with the assumption that there was little regional variation in the temporal and functional distribution of types or attributes used in analysis. In this poster, we use correspondence analyses of local and regional data sets from the Cibola region to create temporal seriations and identify other sources of variation in typological frequency data. We illustrate the potential pitfalls of the project-specific approach and its effects on the interpretation of regional population movement and demography.
A World Forever Changed: The Coronado Expedition’s Effect on the Tiguex Province
Matt Schmader, Albuquerque City Archaeologist
Few events in the history of the Southwest can compare with the arrival of the Coronado expedition into the Rio Grande valley in terms of immediate and permanent impacts on local populations. The Coronado expedition was the largest land-based enterprise of its kind organized by the Spanish crown in North America. Starting with a pre-contact settlement system of at least twelve occupied villages along the river, the local southern Tiwa pueblos experienced devastating and long-lasting effects when Coronado’s expedition reached the “Tiguex province” in the fall of 1540. The Tiwa villages reorganized and depopulated during the following 100 years, a time period which included several smaller expeditions and the first colonization of la Nueva Mexico. By 1625, only three major villages remained along the Rio Grande—Sandia, Alameda, and Puaray—and these were all on the eastern side of the river. Evidence of conflict between the southern Tiwa and the Coronado expedition has been found at Piedras Marcadas, a large pueblo site in northwest Albuquerque. Numerous 16th century metal objects and associated native artifacts reflect initial responses to this first contact and the resulting population changes during a major turning point in the history of the American Southwest.
Woodrow Ruin on the Upper Gila: Preliminary Investigation at a Large, Multi-component Mimbres Site
Jakob Sedig, University of Colorado, Boulder
Woodrow Ruin, located on the Upper Gila in Southwest New Mexico, is one of the most important sites in the Mimbres region. Compared to other Mimbres sites, Woodrow has experienced only minor looting, however no professional archaeological research has been conducted there. This poster presents the results of analysis of surface ceramics and high-precision GPS mapping conducted at Woodrow Ruin during June 2011. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that Woodrow was occupied for close to 1000 years. The demography and social organization of the site changed much through time. Ceramic density distributions demonstrate that different areas of the site were occupied at different times. Additionally, there is evidence of population growth after the Late Pithouse period into the Classic period, which may be a result of migration to the site. The evidence of an intense Classic occupation refutes some earlier studies that suggest the Upper Gila experienced depopulation at the end of the Late Pithouse into the Classic.
Human Adaptation and Response to Fire in the Jemez Mountains: A Long Term Perspective
Anne Baldwin, Mike Bremer, Jennifer Dyer, Rory Gauthier, Jeremy Kulisheck and Anastasia Steffen, The East Jemez Resource Council Cultural Resources Subcommittee
The poster portrays the nature of human and fire interactions in the Jemez Mountains. Fire was and continues to have an effect on the lives of the mountains’ occupants. Research on fire history and climate change provides a backdrop for assessing the relationship between humans and fire affected landscapes. We assume fires in the past were both natural and human caused, and that populations managed fire to their benefit. Recent catastrophic fires in the Jemez and the expectation for more events help clarify the nature of human reactions to fire, and the impacts of fire on human populations.
Effectiveness of agricultural rock alignments for moisture retention
in the American Southwest
Prehistoric farmers in many portions of the Southwest constructed small agricultural terraces or rock alignments which many have argued functioned to slow and retain surface runoff produced during rainfall events. In this poster, soil collections and data from several seasons of in situ moisture monitoring within a prehistoric terraced agricultural field in the Perry Mesa region are evaluated to determine how effective such terraces were at capturing supplemental water and retaining soil moisture. Results are discussed in relation to how these human modifications improved agricultural productivity and are continuing to shape the modern ecology of the region.
Bioarchaeology of Pueblo Conflict: Taking an Historical Ecology Approach to Interpersonal Conflict and Violence
Debra L. Martin and Ryan P. Harrod, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Historical ecology (Balée 2006) can provide insight into environmental changes and the use of violence to solve problems. Analyzing published data on demography, population density and traumatic injuries from a range of Southwest sites provides empirical evidence on the ways that bodies can illuminate the costs and benefits of various behavioral strategies in the face of human mediated disturbances. Utilizing nonlethal head wounds as a proxy for interpersonal conflict, frequencies were compared across temporal (PI-PIII) and spatial (San Juan, Mogollon) dimensions. Preliminary analyses suggest a complex relationship between environmental factors, demographic patterns and violent behaviors.
The Ecological Impacts of Colonial Economies on O’odham Farmers on the middle Gila River
Colleen Strawhacker, Arizona State University
Responding to new economic forces introduced by Spanish missionaries and the United States military, O’odham farmers on the middle Gila River adapted their agricultural system throughout the historic period (AD 1694 – 1950), shifting from a subsistence economy in the prehistoric period to a barter and cash based economy in the historic period. This poster will present preliminary results on how these economic and agricultural changes affected the quality of agricultural soil. Focusing on how soils have been affected by over 1500 years of irrigated agricultural use, the effects of long-term human-environmental interactions will be explored in an environment that undergoes numerous social transformations throughout its prehistory and history. By comparing prehistoric irrigated agricultural fields (primarily subsistence based) to historic irrigated agricultural fields (primarily barter and cash based), the effects of long-term agricultural use and colonial forces on soil quality in irrigated agricultural fields will be explored.
Protecting the Sites of the Kayenta Diaspora: The Salado Preservation Initiative
William H. Doelle and Andy Laurenzi, Center for Desert Archaeology
Over two decades of research has dramatically expanded the evidence for a Kayenta migration from northeastern Arizona to the southern Southwest in the late 1200s. This research is being shared with local communities, land managers, and private land owners through varied outreach channels. The story of the Kayenta migration and its role in the emergence of “the Salado” several generations thereafter helps land owners and managers gain a new perspective on archaeological sites on their properties. The sites left behind by these migrants and their descendants are the focus of the Center for Desert Archaeology’s Salado Preservation Initiative.
Us and Them? Late Pre-contact Social Dynamics in Mule Creek, New Mexico
Katherine Dungan, Deborah Huntley, Robert Jones, and Jeffery Clark, University of Arizona
Our Preservation Archaeology program in the Upper Gila combines collections-based research with fieldwork at Mule Creek in southwestern New Mexico. This poster summarizes preliminary results of this work, focusing on two proximal and temporally overlapping sites occupied by groups from different traditions. Fornholt is a Tularosa phase site similar to others in western New Mexico. The 3-Up site was occupied by local inhabitants who were joined by a small Kayenta group during the late 13th century. 3-Up subsequently developed into a Salado village, establishing connections with similar villages in the Upper and Middle Gila. Fornholt was not so fortunate.
The SWSN Database: Late Prehispanic Artifact Distributions in the Western U.S. Southwest
Wm. Randall Haas, Jr., Jeffery J. Clark, Barbara J. Mills, Lewis Borck, Brett Hill, Deborah Huntley, Matthew Peeples, Susan C. Ryan, M.Steven Shackley, Meaghan A. Trowbridge, University of Arizona
The Southwest Social Networks project recently completed a four-year effort to compile ceramic and obsidian data from late prehispanic (A.D. 1200-1550) sites in the western U.S. Southwest. The database includes 4.3 million typed ceramics and 4877 sourced obsidian
artifacts, nearly all of which are tied to unifying typologies and 682 site-level proveniences. While the project's ultimate goal is to reconstruct and analyze the structure of prehispanic social networks, the massive database offers a valuable resource for other studies in
Southwestern prehistory. We present numerical summaries of the data along with graphical displays of the spatial and temporal distributions of select artifacts.
Multiscalar Perspectives on Southwest Social Networks, A.D. 1200-1500
Barbara Mills, Lewis Borck, Jeffery Clark, Wm. R. Haas, Matthew Peeples, and John M. Roberts, Jr., University of Arizona
The late prehispanic Southwest was a dynamic period of migration and aggregation with many implications for changes in social interaction. We apply Social Network Analysis (SNA) to data collected by the Southwest Social Networks Project to illustrate how networks defined by ceramics changed between A.D. 1200 and 1500 at the micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. We focus on two questions: (1) What were the effects of migration on network topology? and(2) Does network centrality predict settlement persistence? The results illustrate the importance of scale in applying SNA and the usefulness of SNA for relational problems asked of Southwestern data.
Modeling Post A.D. 700 Population Movements and Culture in the Upper San Juan Region
Erik Simpson, Salmon Ruin, Division of Conservation Archaeology
This poster reviews the two main models of migration and development for the post A.D. 700 populations of the Upper San Juan region. The first model (Eddy) was developed from the survey and excavation work associated with the Navajo Reservoir Project and invokes a gradual development with populations shifting in response to deteriorating environmental conditions. The second model (Wilshusen) was based partly on the timing of aggregation in the Northern and Upper San Juan regions. It suggests large scale interregional population movements. A third model is proposed based on the strengths of these previous models and recent data.