Overview Getting Here Accomodations Registration Explore the Area

Overview | Program | Session 1 | Session 2 | Session 3 | Session 4 | Poster Abstracts

Session 4

Long-Distance Movement in the American Southwest: the Intersection of Objects, People and Ideas

Organizer: Deborah Huntley, Center for Desert Archaeology

For more than a century, Southwest archaeologists have examined major questions regarding causes and processes of movement of objects, people, and ideas. Although methodological advances have vastly improved our ability to differentiate local or emulated products or materials from those that are true imports, our explanations for the patterns we observe have often been lacking. Disentangling the complex relationships among movement of people, material culture, and ideas remains a significant challenge in Southwest archaeology. The papers in this session take diverse approaches to meeting this challenge. We seek a deeper understanding of the causes and processes of movement that result in various types of material culture found widely distributed across Southwestern landscapes.

********* Return to top ********

Session Abstracts

You Get it Here, I'll Get it There: Examining the Divergent Long Distance Exchange Patterns throughout the Pithouse and Pueblo Occupation of the Cañada Alamosa
Jeffrey R. Ferguson, University of Missouri, Columbia
Karl W. Laumbach, Human Systems Research, Las Cruces
Toni S. Laumbach, New Mexico Farm and Ranch Museum, Las Cruces
Stephen H. Lekson, University of Colorado, Boulder

The occupation of the four adjacent sites in the Cañada Alamosa represents one of the most dynamic frontiers in all of the American Southwest. The Pithouse through Pueblo occupations reveal varying similarities to surrounding regions in architectural style and other site features, and direct connections in ceramic and obsidian procurement. The long-distance nature of the ceramic procurement (particularly painted ceramics) has been documented through design and compositional studies, and the obsidian procurement patterns tend to reveal opposing directional affiliation. For example, during the proposed northern migrant occupation of the Pinnacle Ruin site, the obsidian assemblage reveals the least amount of northern obsidian. In this paper we further document this divergent procurement pattern and explore a number of possible explanations that include divergent gender-based interaction and risk minimization strategies.

********* Return to top ********

Preliminary Results of a Multiscalar Analysis of
Turquoise Procurement Patterns Across the American Southwest
Sharon Hull, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg
F. Joan Mathien, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology
Mostafa Fayek, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg and Maxwell Museum of Anthropology

Based on characterization of turquoise provenance regions in the western United States and the analysis of a small sample set of turquoise artifacts from Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites, it is clear that the movement of turquoise involved complex relationships between these early inhabitants. Examining these data through a multiscalar framework enhances our understanding of turquoise procurement and trade networks through time and space. For example, results of our dataset show that: 1) on a large macro-regional scale, turquoise is procured from several different provenance regions across the American West, 2) on a regional scale, turquoise procurement patterns of three major great houses show differences in their procurement strategies, and 3) at the local scale, within Chaco Canyon, differences of turquoise procurement patterns between Pueblo Bonito and small sites in Marcia's Rincon are noted. These turquoise procurement patterns support the assumption that more than one lineage group lived in Ancestral Pueblo settlements, including Chaco Canyon during its florescence.

********* Return to top ********

Marriage Patterns and Material Culture: A Pueblo/Fremont Test Case
Maxine E. McBrinn , PaleoCultural Research Group
James M. Adovasio, Mercyhurst College

At various times, archaeologists have proposed that the Great Basin Fremont, who lived in Utah and nearby areas between AD 500 and 1250, were Pueblo colonists, a purely indigenous Great Basin development, intrusive Athabaskans, or something in between. Fremont material culture is generally not distinctively different from that of their neighbors, except in a few cases. Four artifact categories distinguish the Fremont: rock art and pottery depictions of trapezoidal figures, grey coiled-construction utility pottery made using local materials; uniquely constructed leather moccasins; and one-rod-and-bundle coiled basketry. Fremont basketry is distinctly different from that of their contemporary neighbors and from the later Numic-speaking peoples who may have replaced them. One possible explanation for the suite of Fremont material attributes is a differential marriage pattern between Great Basin peoples and the Ancestral Pueblo, wherein only Pueblo men or Pueblo women married into Fremont groups. We examine that hypothesis by considering which gender is likely to have made each artifact class, the distributions of artifact types among the Fremont and their neighbors, and the technological attributes of those artifacts. If gender specific artifact classes are similar to those of a neighboring group, then a differential marriage pattern is a possibility.

********* Return to top ********

Life on the Northern Frontier of the Pimeria Alta
Homer Thiel, Desert Archaeology, Inc., Tucson

Archaeological excavations over the past 20 years have provided new information on the Presidio San Agustin del Tucson, a Spanish and Mexican era (1775-1856) military fortress located on the northern frontier of the Pimeria Alta. The community relied on far-reaching trade networks for utilitarian and luxury goods. Pottery from the Hopi and Zuni pueblos, Chinese porcelains, Mexican majolicas, and British ceramics and muskets all made their way overland and overseas. Items were imported for various reasons- weapons and ammunition for defense, ceramic table wares were essential to reproduce the table settings of one's ancestors, and exotic foodstuffs provided an escape from a mundane diet. Some Native American ceramics likely arrived as souvenirs of military expeditions, while locally made pottery, imitating European forms, replaced hard-to-obtain copper and iron vessels. Material culture and documentary sources reveal how trade goods helped Presidio residents negotiate life in the isolated and often dangerous environment of the Sonoran Desert.

********* Return to top ********

Leaving Old Spaces, Making New Places:
Building Post-Migration Pueblos in the Late Pre-Hispanic Period

Scott Van Keuren, University of Vermont, Burlington

The migrants who resettled at large fourteenth-century villages in portions of the Western Pueblo region not only constructed dwellings but also built new identities, networks, and places. Place-making practices in these "post-migration" areas re-created distant building features and techniques in new localities as migrants called upon collective remembrances of the places they had left. But place-making was not simply about memory work—it was fundamentally tied to processes of population movement and relocation. Migrations were sometimes multistaged events that resulted in a multiplicity of architectural outcomes. In this paper, I use construction sequences and other architectural evidence to discuss place-making practices at Ancestral Pueblo villages in the Silver Creek area and surrounding portions of eastern Arizona. These towns are invariably centered on large plazas, but are remarkably diverse in their configuration and use of materials. Chain migrations in some localities seem to have resulted in spatially- and perhaps even socially-fractured communities. Elsewhere, place-making by first-migrants anticipated larger groups that never arrived. These outcomes reveal that very different migration histories shaped the late pre-Hispanic Pueblo world.

********* Return to top ********