William Croft

Publications and work in progress (for papers not available here, please ask me for a copy by emailing wcroft (at) unm (dot) edu)

Unpublished talks

[W. Croft, C. Beckner, L. Sutton, J. Wilkins, T. Bhattacharya, D. Hruschka]. Quantifying semantic shift for reconstructing language families (83rd Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, San Francisco, 2009). Handout (PDF)

[W. Croft, J. Barðdal, W. Hollmann, M. Nielsen, V. Sotirova & C. Taoka]. Discriminating verb meanings: the case of transfer verbs (Autumn Meeting of the Linguistic Association of Great Britain, Reading, 2001). Abstract

In preparation

Morphosyntax: constructions of the world's languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Table of Contents (Draft, March 2019, PDF) -- Chapter 1: Grammatical constructions, semantic classes and information packaging (Draft, March 2019, PDF) -- Chapter 2: Propositional act construction: the skeleton of a sentence (Draft, March 2019, PDF)

Explaining language change: an evolutionary approach, 2nd edition (revised). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 2: An evolutionary model of language change and language structure (Draft, February 2013, PDF)

The external possession-indirect object continuum.

Locative subjects and related constructions. Abstract


Exemplar semantics. Draft, September 2007 (PDF)

Typological traits and genetic linguistics. Abstract - Draft, January 2004 (PDF)

Social evolution and language change. Abstract - Draft, August 2003 (PDF)

Countability in English Nouns denoting physical entities: a Radical Construction Grammar analysis. Draft, July 2000 (PDF) - Semantic maps (PDF, color)

In press

[Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Nancy Retzlaff, Damián E. Blasi, William Croft, Michael Cysouw, Daniel Hruschka, Ian Maddieson, Lydia Müller, Eric Smith, Peter F. Stadler, George Starostin and Hyejin Youn] Studying language evolution in the age of big data. Journal of Language Evolution.


Using typology to develop guidelines for Universal Dependencies (Invited talk, NoDaLiDa Workshop on Universal Dependencies [UDW 2017]), Gothenburg, Sweden). Extended abstract (PDF)

[William Croft, Pavlina Pešková and Michael Regan] Integrating decompositional event structure into storylines. Proceedings of the Events and Stories in the News Workshop, 98-109. Stroudsburg, Penn.: Association for Computational Linguistics. Abstract - Full text (PDF)

Typology and universals. The Blackwell Handbook of Linguistics, 2nd edition, ed. Mark Aronoff and Janie Rees-Miller, 39-55. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Classifier constructions and their evolution: a commentary on Kemmerer (2016). Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 32(4).425-27.

Evolutionary complexity of social cognition, semasiographic systems, and language. Complexity in language: developmental and evolutionary perspectives, ed. Salikoko Mufwene, Christopher Coupé and François Pellegrino, 101-134. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[William Croft and Meagan Vigus] Constructions, frames and event structure. The AAAI 2017 Spring Symposium on Computational Construction Grammar and Natural Language Understanding (AAAI Technical Report SS-17-02), 147-153. AAAI Press. Abstract - Full text (PDF)

[Mark Baker and William Croft] Lexical categories: legacy, lacuna, and opportunity for functionalists and formalists. Annual Review of Linguistics 3.179-97 Abstract

[William Croft, Dawn Nordquist, Katherine Looney and Michael Regan] Linguistic typology meets Universal Dependencies. Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT15), ed. Markus Dickinson, Jan Hajic, Sandra Kübler and Adam Przepiórkowski, 63-75. CEUR Workshop Proceedings. Abstract - Full text (PDF)


[William Croft and Logan Sutton] Construction grammar and lexicography. International Handbook of Lexis and Lexicography, ed. Patrick Hanks and Gilles-Maurice de Schryver. New York: Springer. Online version published 21 December 2016 (subscription required), hardcopy version to appear.

Typology and the future of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive Linguistics 27.587-602. Abstract

[Sbj Caused_Contact_Verb Obj with Obl]. Aries netwerk: een constructicon,, ed. Alex Reuneker, Ronny Boogart, and Saskia Lensink, 59-60. Leiden.

Comparative concepts and language-specific categories: theory and practice. Linguistic Typology 20.377-93 Abstract

[Gareth Baxter and William Croft] Modeling language change across the lifespan: individual trajectories in community change. Language Variation and Change, 28.129-73. Abstract

[William Croft, Pavlina Pešková and Michael Regan] Annotation of causal and aspectual structure of events in RED: a preliminary report. 4th Events Workshop, 15th Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association of Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (NAACL-HLT 2016), 8-17. Stroudsburg, Penn.: Association for Computational Linguistics. Abstract - Full text (PDF)

[Hyejin Youn, Logan Sutton, Eric Smith, Christopher Moore, Jon F. Wilkins, Ian Maddieson, William Croft and Tanmoy Bhattacharya] On the universal structure of human lexical semantics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(7).1766-71. Abstract - Open access

What language is the language-ready brain ready for? Comment on “Towards a computational comparative neuroprimatology: framing the language-ready brain” by Michael Arbib. Physics of Life Reviews 16.66-68.


Force dynamics and directed change in event lexicalization and argument realization. Cognitive science perspectives on verb representation and processing, ed. Roberto G. de Almeida and Christina Manouilidou, 103-30. New York: Springer.

Functional approaches to grammar. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed., ed. James D. Wright, vol. 9, 470-75. Oxford: Elsevier. Abstract

Evolution and language: overview. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed., ed. James D. Wright, vol. 8, 364-69. Oxford: Elsevier. Abstract


Comparing categories and constructions crosslinguistically (again): the diversity of ditransitives [Review article on Studies in ditransitive constructions: a comparative handbook, ed. A. Malchukov, M. Haspelmath and B. Comrie]. Linguistic Typology 18.533-551.

Studying language as a complex adaptive system. English Linguistics 31.1-21. Abstract


Do we need propositional representations between language and embodied meanings? [commentary on Peter Ford Dominey, “How are grammatical constructions linked to embodied meaning representations?”]. AMD Newsletter (The Newsletter of the Autonomous Mental Development Technical Committee, IEEE) 10;2.5-6.

[Dan Dediu, Michael Cysouw, Stephen C. Levinson, Andrea Baronchelli, Morten H. Christiansen, William Croft, Nicholas Evans, Simon Garrod, Russell D. Gray, Anne Kandler and Elena Lieven] Cultural evolution of language. Cultural evolution: society, technology, language, and religion, ed. Peter J. Richerson and Morten H. Christiansen, 303-32. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Abstract

Agreement as anaphora, anaphora as coreference. Languages across boundaries: studies in memory of Anna Siewierska, ed. Dik Bakker and Martin Haspelmath, 107-29. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Language use and the evolution of languages. The language phenomenon, ed. Philippe Binder and Kenny Smith, 93-120. Berlin: Springer. Abstract

Radical Construction Grammar. The Handbook of Construction Grammar, ed. Graeme Trousdale and Thomas Hoffmann, 211-32. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hypothesis formation. The Bloomsbury companion to syntax, ed. Silvia Luraghi and Claudia Parodi, 11-21. London: Bloomsbury.

Joseph H. Greenberg. Theory in social and cultural anthropology: an encyclopedia, ed. R. Jon McGee and Richard L. Warms, 363-65. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.


Dimensional models of event structure and verbal semantics [commentary on Massimo Warglien, Peter Gärdenfors and Matthijs Westera, "Event structure, conceptual spaces and the semantics of verbs"]. Theoretical Linguistics 38.195-203.

Ten lectures on construction grammar and typology. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

[William Croft and Eva Van Lier] Language universals without universal categories [commentary on Sandra Chung, "Are lexical categories universal? The view form Chamorro"]. Theoretical Linguistics 38.57-72.

[Richard A. Blythe and William Croft]. S-curves and the mechanisms of propagation in language change. Language 88.269-304. - Abstract

Verbs: aspect and causal structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


[William Croft, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Dave Kleinschmidt, D. Eric Smith and T. Florian Jaeger] Greenbergian universals, diachrony and statistical analyses [commentary on Dunn et al., Evolved structure of language shows lineage-specific trends in word order universals]. Linguistic Typology 15.433-53.

[T. Florian Jaeger, Peter Graff, William Croft and Daniel Pontillo] Mixed effect models for genetic and areal dependences in linguistic typology [commentary on Atkinson, Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa]. Linguistic Typology 15.281-320.

[Ian Maddieson, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, D. Eric Smith and William Croft] Geographical distribution of phonological complexity [commentary on Atkinson, Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa]. Linguistic Typology 15.267-79.

Language as a process. Experience, variation and generalization: learning a first language, ed. Inbal Arnon and Eve V. Clark, 241-60. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Language structure in its human context: new directions for the language sciences in the twenty-first century. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences, ed. Patrick Hogan, 1-11. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Review of Salikoko Mufwene, Language evolution: contact, competition and change. World Englishes 29.306-11.

[W. Croft, J. Barðdal, W. Hollmann, V. Sotirova & C. Taoka] Revising Talmy's typological classification of complex events. Contrastive construction grammar, ed. Hans Boas, 201-35. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Pragmatic function, semantic classes and lexical categories [commentary on Smith, "Pragmatic functions and lexical categories"]. Linguistics 48.787-96. Abstract

Relativity, linguistic variation and language universals. Abstract - CogniTextes 4.303 (online publication)

[R. A. Blythe and W. Croft] Can a science-humanities collaboration be successful? Adaptive Behavior 18.12-20. Abstract

Ten unwarranted assumptions in syntactic argumentation. Language usage and language structure, ed. Kasper Boye and Elisabeth Engberg-Pedersen, 313-50. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

The origins of grammaticalization in the verbalization of experience. Linguistics 48.1-48. Abstract


Joseph H. Greenberg. Lexicon Grammaticorum: a bio-bibliographical companion to the history of linguistics, 2nd edition, vol. I, ed. Harro Stammerjohann, 567-69. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Joseph Harold Greenberg. Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences, vol. 90, 152-81. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Online version (PDF)

[C. Beckner, R. A. Blythe, J. L. Bybee, M. H. Christiansen, W. Croft, N. C. Ellis, J. Holland, J. Ke, D. Larsen-Freeman, T. Schoenemann] Language is a complex adaptive system. Language Learning 59:Supplement 1.1-26. - Abstract

[R. A. Blythe and W. Croft] The speech community in evolutionary language dynamics. Language Learning 59:Supplement 1.47-63. - Abstract

[D. J. Hruschka, M. H. Christiansen, R. A. Blythe, W. Croft, P. Heggarty, S. S. Mufwene, J. B. Pierrehumbert, S. Poplack] Building social cognitive models of language change. Trends in Cognitive Science 13.464-69. - Abstract

Syntax is more diverse, and evolutionary linguistics is already here [commentary on Evans and Levinson, "The myth of language universals: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science"]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32.453-54.

[G. J. Baxter, R. A. Blythe, W. Croft and A. J. McKane] Modeling language change: an evaluation of Trudgill's theory of the emergence of New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 21.157-96. Abstract

Toward a social cognitive linguistics. New directions in cognitive linguistics, ed. Vyvyan Evans and Stéphanie Pourcel, 395-420. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. - Abstract

Connecting frames and constructions: a case study of 'eat' and 'feed'. Constructions and Frames 1.7-28 Abstract

Constructions and generalizations [commentary on Goldberg, Constructions at work]. Cognitive Linguistics 20.157-66.

Aspectual and causal structure in event representations. Routes to language development: in honor of Melissa Bowerman, ed. Virginia Gathercole, 139-66. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Methods for finding language universals in syntax. Universals of language today, ed. Sergio Scalise and Elisabetta Magni, 145-64. Berlin: Springer. Abstract - Errata


Evolutionary linguistics. Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 37, ed. William H. Durham, Donald Brenneis and Peter T. Ellison, 219-34. Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews. Abstract - Online version

[W. Croft & K. T. Poole] Inferring universals from grammatical variation: multidimensional scaling for typological analysis. Theoretical Linguistics 34.1-37. Abstract

[W. Croft & K. T. Poole] Multidimensional scaling and other techniques for uncovering universals [response to commentaries]. Theoretical Linguistics 34.75-84.

On iconicity of distance [comment on Haspelmath, "Frequency vs. iconicity in explaining grammatical asymmetries"]. Cognitive Linguistics 19.49-57.


[M. Bowerman and W. Croft] The English lexical causative alternation. Crosslinguistic perspectives on argument structure: implications for learnability, ed. Melissa Bowerman and Penelope Brown, 279-307. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Construction grammar. Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, ed. Dirk Geeraerts and Hubert Cuyckens, 463-508. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The origins of grammar in the verbalization of experience. Cognitive Linguistics 18.339-82. Abstract

Typology and linguistic theory in the past decade: a personal view. Linguistic Typology 11.79-91.

[M. Vihman & W. Croft] Phonological development: toward a 'radical' templatic phonology. Linguistics 45.683-725. Abstract

Language. The language of science, ed. Giandomenico Sica. Monza: Polimentrica. Online publication

Beyond Aristotle and gradience: a reply to Aarts. Studies in Language 31.409-30. Abstract

Intonation units and grammatical structure in Wardaman and in crosslinguistic perspective. Australian Journal of Linguistics 27.1-39. Abstract


On explaining metonymy: comment on Geeraerts and Piersman, "Metonymy as a prototypical category". Cognitive Linguistics 17.317-26.

The relevance of an evolutionary model to historical linguistics. Different models of linguistic change, ed. Ole Nedergård Thomsen. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Evolutionary models and functional-typological theories of language change. Handbook of the History of English, ed. Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los, 68-91. Oxford: Blackwell. Abstract

[G. Baxter, R. Blythe, W. Croft and A. J. McKane] Utterance selection model of linguistic change. Physical Review E 73.046118. Abstract


[W. Croft, ed.]. Genetic linguistics: essays on theory and method, by Joseph H. Greenberg. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Includes: Croft, "Editor's Introduction", x-xxxv, and "Bibliography of works related to Joseph H. Greenberg's theory and methods for genetic linguistics", 389-410.) Description

Word classes, parts of speech and syntactic argumentation [commentary on Evans and Osada, "Mundari: the myth of a language without word classes"]. Linguistic Typology

Comment on Karstedt and Hage. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 128.333-38.

Joseph H. Greenberg. Fitzroy Dearborn Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, ed. Philipp Strazny. New York: Taylor and Francis.


[W. Croft and D. A. Cruse] Cognitive linguistics. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Description

Syntactic theories and syntactic methodology: a reply to Seuren. Journal of Linguistics 40.637-54.

Logical and typological arguments for Radical Construction Grammar. Construction Grammar(s): Cognitive and cross-language dimensions (Constructional Approaches to Language, 3), ed. Mirjam Fried and Jan-Ola Östman, 273-314. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Form, meaning and speakers in the evolution of language (Commentary on Kirby et al., From UG to universals: linguistic adaptation through iterated learning). Studies in Language 28.608-11.


Typology and universals, second edition. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Description - Problem sets (PDF) - Errata, January 2005 (PDF)

Mixed languages and acts of identity: an evolutionary approach. The mixed language debate, ed. Yaron Matras & Peter Bakker, 41-72. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lexical rules vs. constructions: a false dichotomy. Motivation in Language: Studies in honour of Günter Radden, ed. Hubert Cuyckens, Thomas Berg, René Dirven & Klaus-Uwe Panther, 49-68. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Typology. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, ed. L. Nadel, vol. 4, 434-40. London: Nature Publishing Group.


The Darwinization of linguistics. Selection. 3.75-91. Abstract

Correction to Greenberg obituary. Language 78.560-64. Corrected version (PDF) - Complete bibliography of the works of Joseph H. Greenberg (PDF)

On being a student of Joe Greenberg. Linguistic Typology 6.3-8.

Joseph H. Greenberg. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia.


Radical Construction Grammar: syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Description

[W. Croft, C. Taoka & E. J. Wood]. Argument linking and the commercial transaction frame in English, Russian and Japanese. Language Sciences 23.579-602. Abstract

Functional approaches to grammar. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes, 6323-30. Oxford: Elsevier Sciences. Abstract

Joseph Harold Greenberg. Language 77.815-30. Corrected version (PDF) - Complete bibliography of the works of Joseph H. Greenberg (PDF)

Professor Joseph Greenberg. The Independent, 21 June 2001, p. 6.


Explaining language change: an evolutionary approach. Harlow, Essex: Longman. Description

Parts of speech as typological universals and as language particular categories. Approaches to the typology of word classes, ed. Petra Maria Vogel and Bernard Comrie, 65-102. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Abstract

[W. Croft & E. J. Wood]. Construal operations in linguistics and artificial intelligence. Meaning and cognition: a multidisciplinary approach, ed. Liliana Albertazzi, 51-78. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Typology. The Blackwell Handbook of Linguistics, ed. Mark Aronoff and Janie Rees-Miller, 337-68. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Grammatical and lexical semantics. Morphology: A Handbook on Inflection and Word Formation, ed. Geert Booij, Christian Lehmann and Joachim Mugdan, 257-63. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


[Timothy C. Clausner and William Croft] Domains and image-schemas. Cognitive Linguistics 10.1-31. Abstract

Some contributions of typology to cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics: foundations, scope and methodology, ed. Theo Janssen & Gisela Redeker, 61-93. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Abstract

What (some) functionalists can learn from (some) formalists. Functionalism and Formalism in Linguistics, ed. Michael Darnell, Edith Moravcsik, Frederick Newmeyer, Michael Noonan and Kathleen Wheatley, 85-108. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Adaptation, optimality and diachrony [commentary on Martin Haspelmath, Optimality and diachronic adaptation]. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 18.206-8.


Linguistic evidence and mental representations. Cognitive Linguistics 9.151-73. Abstract

[Responses: D. Sandra, What linguists can and can't tell you about the human mind: a reply to Croft, Cognitive Linguistics 9.361-78; R. W. Gibbs Jr. & T. Matlock, Psycholinguistics and mental representations, Cognitive Linguistics 10.263-69; David Tuggy, Linguistic evidence for polysemy in the mind: a response to William Croft and Dominiek Sandra, Cognitive Linguistics 10.343-68.]

[S. Gelman, W. Croft, P. Fu, T. C. Clausner & G. Gottfried] Why is a pomegranate an apple? The role of shape, taxonomic relatedness, and prior lexical knowledge in children's overextensions. Journal of Child Language 25.267-91. Abstract

Event structure in argument linking. The projection of arguments: lexical and compositional factors, ed. Miriam Butt and Wilhelm Geuder, 1-43. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information. Abstract

The structure of events and the structure of language. The new psychology of language: cognitive and functional approaches to language structure, ed. Michael Tomasello, 67-92. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Not revolutionary enough: commentary on Tomasello, The return of constructions. Journal of Child Language 25.479-83.

Ein formbezogener Beschreibungsrahmen für deskriptive Grammatiken. Deskriptive Grammatik und allgemeine Sprachvergleich, ed. Dietmar Zaefferer, 17-28 (translated by Andreas Dufter & Dietmar Zaefferer). Tübingen: Niemeyer.


[Timothy C. Clausner and William Croft] The productivity and schematicity of metaphor. Cognitive Science 21.247-82. Abstract

Review of Francesca Merlan, A grammar of Wardaman. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 50.109-112.

Review of Rudi Keller, On language change: the invisible hand in language. Journal of Pragmatics 27.393-402.


Linguistic selection: an utterance-based evolutionary theory of language. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 19.99-139. Abstract

What's a head? Phrase structure and the lexicon, ed. Laurie Zaring & Johan Rooryck. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Abstract

'Markedness' and 'universals': from the Prague school to typology. Multiple perspectives on the historical dimensions of language, ed. Kurt R. Jankowsky, 15-21. Münster: Nodus. Abstract

Review of George van Driem, A grammar of Dumi. Linguistics 34.420-24.

Review of Zygmund Frajzyngier, A grammar of Mupun. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 49.389-92.


Autonomy and functionalist linguistics. Language 71.490-532. Abstract

Intonation units and grammatical structure. Linguistics 33.839-882. Abstract

Modern syntactic typology. Approaches to Language Typology: Past and Present, ed. Masayoshi Shibatani and Theodora Bynon, 85-143. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Review of Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Nominalizations. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 18.75-83.

Review of M. H. Klaiman, Grammatical Voice. Studies in Language 19.553-62.


Semantic universals in classifier systems. Word 45:145-71. Abstract

The semantics of subjecthood. Subjecthood and Subjectivity, ed. Maria Yaguello, 29-75. Paris: Ophrys.

Voice: beyond control and affectedness. Voice: Form and Function, ed. Paul Hopper and Barbara Fox, 89-117. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Abstract

Sentence typology and the taxonomy of speech acts. Foundations of Speech Act Theory, ed. S. L. Tsohatzidis, 460-77. London: Routledge. Abstract

The typological approach to grammar. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, ed.-in-chief R. E. Asher, 4807-13. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Linguistic universals. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, ed.-in-chief R. E. Asher, 4850-52. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Sequoia grove management: natural or humanistic? Proceedings of the Symposium on Giant Sequoias: Their Place in the Ecosystem and Society (General Technical Report PSW-GTR-151), ed. Philip Aune, 8-10. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, U. S. Forest Service.


The role of domains in the interpretation of metaphors and metonymies. Cognitive Linguistics 4:335-70. Abstract

[Reprinted with an afterword in Lexicon-Encyclopedia Interface, ed. Bert Peeters. Amsterdam: Elsevier, to appear. Revised version printed in Metaphor and metonymy in comparison and contrast, ed. René Dirven & Ralf Pörings, 161-205. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002.]

Functional-typological theory in its historical and intellectual context. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 1:15-26. Abstract

[Revised version translated as La théorie de la typologie fonctionelle dans son contexte historique et intellectuel. Verbum 20.289-307, 1998.]

Case marking and the semantics of mental verbs. Semantics and the Lexicon, ed. James Pustejovsky, 55-72. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Abstract

What are the connections? Language acquisition and linguistic theory. Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Child language Research Forum, ed. Eve V. Clark, 1-6. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

A noun is a noun is a noun - or is it? Some reflections on the universality of semantics. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. Joshua S. Guenter, Barbara A. Kaiser and Cheryl C. Zoll, 369-80. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. Open Access

[B. Comrie, W. Croft, C. Lehmann, D. Zaefferer] A framework for descriptive grammars. Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Linguists, Vol. I, ed. Andre Crochetière, Jean-Claude Boulanger and Conrad Ouellon, 159-70. Sainte-Foy, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval.

Review of Ernest Davis, Representations of Commonsense Knowledge. Artificial Intelligence 61:105-12.


Review of Edwin Battistella, Markedness. Journal of Linguistics 28:228-33.

Review of William MacGregor, A Functional Grammar of Gooniyandi. Language 68:440.


Syntactic Categories and Grammatical Relations: The Cognitive Organization of Information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Description

The evolution of negation. Journal of Linguistics27:1-27. Abstract

Review of John A. Hawkins (ed.), Explaining Language Universals. Language 67:146-50.

[William Croft, ed.] Cognitive Approaches to Grammar (University of Michigan Working Papers in Linguistics No. 2). Ann Arbor: Program in Linguistics, University of Michigan .

Introduction: principles of cognitive grammar. Cognitive Approaches to Grammar (University of Michigan Working Papers in Linguistics No. 2). ed. W. Croft, v-x. Ann Arbor: Program in Linguistics, University of Michigan .


Typology and Universals. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A conceptual framework for grammatical categories (or, a taxonomy of propositional acts). Journal of Semantics 7:245-279. Abstract

Possible verbs and event structure. Meanings and Prototypes: Studies on Linguistic Categorization, ed. S. L. Tsohatzidis, 48-73. London: Routledge. Abstract

[William Croft, Keith Denning and Suzanne Kemmer, ed.] Studies in Typology and Diachrony for Joseph H. Greenberg. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

[William Croft, Keith Denning and Suzanne Kemmer]. Typology and diachrony in the work of Joseph H. Greenberg. Studies in Typology and Diachrony for Joseph H. Greenberg, ed. W. Croft, K. Denning and S. Kemmer, ix-xviii. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


Agreement vs. case marking and direct objects. Agreement in Natural Language: Approaches, Theories, Descriptions, ed. Michael Barlow and Charles A. Ferguson, 159-180. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

Review of Russell Tomlin, Basic Word Order. Linguistics 26:892-895.


[Jerry Hobbs, William Croft, Todd Davies, Douglas Edwards, and Kenneth Laws]. Commonsense metaphysics and lexical semantics. Computational Linguistics 13:241-250. Abstract

[W. Croft, H. Bat-Zeev Shyldkrot, and S. Kemmer]. Diachronic semantic processes in the middle voice. Papers from the VIIth International Conference on Historical Linguistics, ed. Anna Giacolone Ramat, Onofrio Carruba and Giuliano Bernini, 179-192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


Review of Suzanne Romaine, Sociohistorical Linguistics. Language in Society 15:273-280.

Universal quantifiers and generic expressions. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1983. Revised version, January 20, 1986 (PDF)


Indirect object 'lowering'. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. Mary Niepokuj et al., 39-51. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. Open Access

Determiners and specification. Commonsense Summer: Final Report, by Jerry Hobbs et al., Chapter 7. (CSLI Report No. 35.) Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.


Semantic and pragmatic correlates to syntactic categories. Papers from the Parasession on Lexical Semantics, Twentieth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, ed. D. Testen, V. Mishra and J. Drogo, 53-71. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Verbal semantics, disambiguating scope and distributive readings. Proceedings of the Third West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, ed. M. Cobler, S. MacKaye and M. Wescoat, 48-61. Stanford, CA: Department of Linguistics, Stanford University.

The representation of adverbs, adjectives and events in logical form. (SRI Technical Note 344.) Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Abstract


Grammatical relations vs. thematic roles as universals. Papers from the Nineteenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, ed. A. Chukerman, M. Marks and J. Richardson, 76-94. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Quantifier scope ambiguity and definiteness. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. A. Dahlstrom et al., 25-36. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. Open Access


Transitivity and possession in Quiché (and elsewhere). Papers from the Sixteenth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, ed. J. Kreiman and A. E. Ojeda, 30-44. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.