|Intro Lecture, Homestatic Control, & Neuromuscular Function and Adaptations
The origins of Exercise Physiology are very global. Numerous key figures played a role in the development of exercise physiology. What role did the following persons play in the origins of exercise physiology?
Herodicus, Hippocrates, Galen, Archibald Hill, Lawrence Henderson, David B. Dill, Per-Olof Astand, Bengt Saltin, Jonas Bergstrom, Albert Behnke, Thomas Cureton, J.C. Dalton, Milo, Erling Asmussen, Luigi Galvani: CLASS, scroll to bottom of page and try the quiz with the pioneers.
Another name for anatomy, the study of structure is?
Physiology is involved with the study of what?
Explain the difference between an acute response and a chronic adaptation. Can you give some examples of each?
In exercise physiology, we look at changes from the resting level to all levels of exercise intensity.
What are the 5 components of Physical Fitness? Be able to name and give a definition of each.
What are some environmental factors that would affect performance? MORE a question for you to think about and not for exam purposes.
The famous Greek athlete Milo is credited with developing what principle of training (from lifting a calf over his shoulders and carrying for hundreds of yards every day)?
What are some bodily factors that would affect performance? MORE a question for you to think about and not for exam purposes.
Ergometer is two words that mean?
Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of a cycle ergometer and treadmill for the purposes of exercise testing. Not for an exam test item, but for you to focus on what goes on in a testing situation in exercise physiology.
What is a simple definition of a risk factor? What are some examples?
Define longitudinal research design and give an example?
What is the difference in homeostasis and steady state?
Name some physiological variables that can maintain Steady State during exercise at a constant intensity?
Explain what negative feedback means.
Skeletal muscle chemical composition is what % water? protein? and other substances.
Some of the other substances that make up muscle include?
What is different about the nucleus in muscles versus other cells in the body?
Terms to know with skeletal muscle physiology: epimysium, perimysium, fasciculi, periosteum, sarcolemma, sarcoplasma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasma, actin, myosin, Z line (disk), I band, A band, H zone, A band, troponin, tropomyosin, myofibrils, myofillaments, polarized, transverse tubules, acetylcholine, neuromuscular junction, hypertrophy, hyperplasia.
Class, make sure you can draw and label the gross structure of skeletal muscle.
Make sure you can draw and label the sarcomere structure.
Is a muscle cell the same as a muscle fiber?
What is another name for cytoplasm of a MUSCLE cell?
Describe the purpose of the sarcolemma. Why is it referred to as a polarized plasma membrane? How many layers are there on the plasma membrane? Describe what polarized means?
Draw and label the sarcomere and answer the following.
During a shortening (concentric) muscle action, what happens to the H zone, A band, I band, and Z lines?
During a lengthening (eccentric) muscle action, what happens to the the H zone, A band, I band, and Z lines?
What is the name of the pioneer in exercise physiology who introduced the name eXcentric, which was later changed to eccentric muscle action?
Explain the sliding filament theory. Begin your discussion with the arrival of the nerve impulse to the axon terminal ending. Complete your discussion with return of calcium to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
What causes the myosin heads to disassociate from the actin binding sites (after the myosin has completed a power stroke). Reminder: the power stroke is the pulling of the actin across the myosin by the S1 units.
Explain what a motor unit is? What is the all-or-none phenomenon of motor units?
What is the motor end plate? How is the motor end plate related to the sarcolemma? How are the transverse tubules (t-tubules) related to the sarcolemma?
What are the different types of muscle fibers? What type of muscle fiber type is emphasized during endurance exercise? What type of muscle fiber type is emphasized for short-burst explosive work? What fiber type has endurance and short-burst characteristics?
Terms to know: dendrites, axon, axon hillock, myelin sheath, swan cells, nodes of ranvier, saltatory conduction, depolarization, hyperpolarization, graded potentials, repolarization, active transport
Approximately how fast is a nerve action potential?
Review what does polarized mean?
Describe what resting membrane potential and the main electrolytes inside and outside the cell.
Disuss what it means for a nerve cell to reach THRESHOLD.
Discuss the steps and processes of a nerve cell at resting membrane potential receiving a stimulus and then propagating an action potential, finally returning to RMP. Can you draw out these steps?
Motor units are recruited in a progressive manner determined by the force they must produce: Type I; then Type IIa (with the help of Type I); then Type IIx (with the help of Type IIa and Type 1). The Type 1 are long-lasting fibers that do no create a lot of force. Contrariwise, Type IIa and Type IIx create much more force. Type IIx is the most powerful fiber type in the body. This recruitment is determined by the FORCE demands placed on the muscle. Can you explain motor unit recruitment in a brief essay paragraph?
CLICK HERE FOR a picture of this phenomenon and thorough explanation.
What is the all-or-none phenomenon (of motor units) mean?
What is Calciums double role in muscular contraction? (Think this through...what does calcium do at the neuromuscular junction and what does calcium do with troponin?)
Summary of Muscle Contraction? Class, although I have summarized this for you, try to understand it because if you just memorize you can easily make some errors!
SEE PRACTICE QUIZ BELOW!
1. Motor nerves impulse action potential arrives at axon terminal of the neuromuscular junction
2. Calcium ions rush in and react with synaptic vesicles
3.Synaptic vesicles fuse with cell membrane
4.Acetylcholine released via process of exocytosis
5.Acetylcholine binds with receptor sites on motor end plate causing depolarization of motor end plate and sarcolemma
6. Impulse travels T- tubules & excites sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
7. Calcium ions released from SR
8. Calcium binds with troponin
9. Shift of tropomyosin, make sites available for myosin
10. With ATP present, ATPase splits ATP to ADP + Pi + Energy
11. Myosin (S1 units) combine with actin
12. Sliding action of actin over myosin (Power Stroke)
13. Impulse stops to muscle: calcium ions rapidly return to SR
14. Tropomyosin returns over active sites on actin and contraction ceases
Class, for your OWN personal review from your Biology Class, make sure you are familiar with the functional organization of the nervous system. Just for review purposes of your basic understanding of the nervous system.
What does the muscle spindle respond do within the muscle.
What does the golgi tendon organ (which is located in the tendon) respond to.
Muscular Adaptations to Resistance Training
Go over in detail the hypertrophic factors of resistance training. This is one of the culminating summaries of this section. What increases, and what is debatable. Know all of these factors!
The early gains in resistance training are predominantly what? There are 3 components to neural driveWhat are they?
PRACTICE QUIZ OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION! PLEASE NUMBER THE SEQUENCE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION IN CORRECT ORDER
____Calcium ions released
____Calcium ions rush in and react with synaptic vesicles
____Myosin (S1 units) combine with actin
____With ATP present, ATPase splits ATP to ADP + Pi + Energy
____Tropomyosin returns over active sites on actin and contraction ceases
____Impulse travels T- tubules & sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
____Motor nerves impulse action potential arrives at axon terminal of the neuromuscular junction
____Shift of tropomyosin, make sites available for myosin
____Acetylcholine released via process of exocytosis
____Calcium binds with troponin
____Sliding action of actin over myosin (Power Stroke)
____Acetylcholine binds with receptor sites on motor end plate causing depolarization of motor end plate and sarcolemma
____Impulse stops to muscle: calcium ions rapidly return to SR
____Synaptic vesicles fuse with cell membrane
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS
Pioneers of Exercise Physiology Quiz Questions:
1. Which pioneer excelled in Sports Medicine and even treated some of the Gladiators?
2. What scientist founded the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory?
3. Who is recognized as the 'father of preventive medicine'?
4. This pioneer had great impact on the physical fitness movement in the U.S.
5. What scientist developed the biopsy needle?
6. This scientist was known for his work in energy metabolism and was a Nobel prize winner.
7. This medical doctor was truly a visionary of health and fitness understandings accepted today.
8. This doctor was the mentor to Hippocrates.
9. The first and only director of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory.
10. Researcher most associated with body composition investigations.
11. Scandinavian researcher who is recognized for work in muscle metabolism.
12. Which researcher who did much work on endurance capacity of runners?
13. The scientist who first introduced the name eXcentric exercise in a scientific journal?
14. Famous Greek Athlete credited with introducing 'Progressive Overload'?
15. Medical doctor who discovered animal electricity called bioelectricity.
Check your answers below
Answers: 1=Galen, 2=Lawrence Henderson, 3=Hippocrates, 4=Thomas K. Cureton, 5=Jonas Bergstrom, 6=Archibald Hill, 7=J.C. Dalton, 8=Herodicus, 9=David B.Dill, 10=Albert Behnke, 11=Bengt Saltin, 12=Per-Olof Astrand, 13=Erling Asmussen, 14=Milo, 15=Lugi Galvani
End of Scholarly Questions