E - On Paraphrasing
     Background:  The prefix "para-" means nearly, similar, beside.  
For example, parallel lines go in the same direction.  To paraphrase 
a sentence is to use different words to express (phrase) the same 
idea.  Two of the techniques used in paraphrasing a sentence are changing 
some of the words to their definitions or to synonyms.   
These techniques do not usually require changing the structure of 
the sentence, but they do require some understanding of the meaning 
of the sentence. 
Paraphrasing Exercise 1:  Simple Sentences
    Some examples of paraphrasing with synonyms: 
1.  "My car needs gasoline." 
    a. My automobile needs fuel. 
    b. My wheels need gas. 
2.  "The U.S. government has an enormous debt." 
    a. The federal government has an extremely large debt. 
    b. The national government has a huge debt. 
    Some examples of paraphrasing with definitions: 
1.  "A college student usually has homework to do." 
    a. A person going to college typically has to study at home. 
    b. People taking college courses usually have assignments to do 
2.  "Alcoholics drink more and enjoy it less than social drinkers." 
    a. A person who is addicted to alcohol consumes more but gets less 
       pleasure than a person who drinks just to be sociable. 
    b. People who really need to drink have a high level of intake but a 
       lower level of satisfaction than people who can take it or leave 
DIRECTIONS: Paraphrase the following sentences by replacing the 
CAPITALIZED words with a definition or synonym.  (If necessary, you 
may rephrase.) 
1.  The way to a MALE'S heart is through his TUMMY. 
2.  A FLYING ANIMAL in the hand is AS VALUABLE AS two in the bush. 
3.  There's a FOOL WITH MONEY born every SIXTY SECONDS. 
4.  TO HELL with the torpedoes, full speed FORWARD. 
5.  A rolling ROCK COLLECTS no moss. 
A.  A penny SAVED is a penny EARNED. 
B.  Valuable GIFTS often come in SMALL packages. 
C.  You can't teach an OLD dog new TRICKS. 
D.  A BOY'S best friend is his DOG. 
E.  A fool and his MONEY are soon PARTED. 
F.  The EARLY bird GETS the worm. 
G.  HASTE_makes WASTE. 
H.  HONESTY is the best POLICY. 
I.  You can't MAKE a silk purse OUT OF a cow's ear. 
J.  Better LATE than NEVER. 
Think of other familiar sayings and paraphrase them in several ways. 
Paraphrasing Exercise 2:  Complex Sentences - A 
     Background: The simplest sentence is the SAAD sentence.  Those 
letters stand  for Simple, Active, Affirmative, and Declarative.   
An example of such a sentence is, "Juan is reading the book."  An 
alternative to declarative is the question, "Is Juan reading the 
book?"   An alternative to affirmative is the  negative, "Juan is 
not reading the book."   An alternative to active is the passive, 
"The book is being read by Juan."  And the sentence is simple 
because it has a single subject/predicate/object. 
     We speak to very young children using simple sentences.  
"Please bring me the book.  The book is on the table.  The book 
is green."  However it is often more efficient to use a single, 
more complex sentence: "Please bring me the green book that is on  
the table."  Although a few people seem to delight in using 
unnecessarily complex sentences,  most educated people try to 
balance simplicity with efficiency.  In any event, in order to
understand a complex sentence,  you have to extract the ideas and 
paraphrase them as simple sentences. 
DIRECTIONS:   For each of the following complex sentences, extract 
three ideas and state them separately. 
Example:  Although our human ability to communicate is  genetically 
determined and hence is a part of our biological nature,  speech 
devopment is importantly affected by the environment.
      a.  The ability for human communication is biologically based. 
      b.  The ability for human communication is transmitted through
      c.  Environment also influences how human communication develops. 

1.  Learning to talk occurs in similar ways and on similar schedules for
    all normal children, with little effect of differences in training
    or practice.
2.  Although a bad environment can retard language development, children 
    can learn to speak in any environment where other people speak, but
    they need a supportive environment to learn to speak eloquently.

3.  There is a limited number of possible sounds of speech (which are
    called phonemes, the building blocks of language) which can be 
    combined in various way to make up words. 
4.  Nonverbal means of communication can be useful in expressing emotions 
and feelings, but they are narrower than the verbal system which can 
express abstract concepts and help in problem solving.

5.  Human nonverbal communication is not unique and indeed is no better
than that of other primates, but our verbal system sets us apart from
other animals because it gives us the ability to express cognitive as
well as emotional thoughts, and to share complex ideas with others.
Paraphrasing Exercise 3:  Complex Sentences - B 
       One form of paraphrasing sentences is to use some different 
words and rearrange the order in which the parts of the sentence are 
given.  The result is still a complex sentence, but it may be one that is 
easier to understand.  Good writers often re-write the same sentence 
several different ways in order to find  the  particular version that seem 
to communicate the idea best. 
DIRECTIONS:  Paraphrase the following statements in two different ways. 
You may find it helpful to imagine rephrasing the statements as if you 
were speaking to different audiences, such as another student, a parent, 
or a teacher.  Two examples are provided:  
Example 1.  "Even though many species of animals communicate, human
            verbal communication is by far the most complex system."
     a.  While people are not the only animals who communicate, our system 
of communication is the most complex. 
     b.  Other animals besides  humans  communicate,  but their systems of 
communication are less complex.  

Example 2.  "By shifting the physical quality of one's voice, a person can 
express varied emotional states." 
     a.  A person can change the physical quality of his or her voice to 
         express different emotions.  
     b.  To express different feelings, people may use different voice 
         tone, volume, or emphasis.  
1.  "When speaking, a person combines sounds into complex structures, 
andeach different structure is a meaningful unit."

2.  "Even dogs can express emotions, as when they growl at a postman or
    bark to be let in or out of the house."
3.  "One of the complicated ways animals describe their environment is
    the dance done by bees to tell other bees where there is nectar."

4.  "Many bird species sing long sequences of different songs in a way 
    that is analogous to humans combining words into sentences."

5.  "Other animals can express emotions, describe the environment, or
    combine sounds into strings, but only humans can do all of these." 
6.  "It is possible to teach a chimpanzee to use sign language, but no
    chimpanzee has proven able to construct a new sentence in the way
    that humans do routinely."

7.  "Nevertheless, there are still many mysteries of communication
    among animals, including the 'songs' of whales and dolphins."

Do you think that any of your paraphrases are "better" sentences than the 
original?  Can you think of a still better way to express the 
same idea? 

Paraphrasing Exercise 4:  Paragraphs - A 
     Background:  Just as a complex sentence can be paraphrased  by 
extracting the ideas and expressing them as separate simple sentences,  a 
paragraph can be paraphrased  by  extracting each idea in each of the 
sentences.  The difference between this form of paraphrasing a paragraph
and  paraphrasing a sentence is that some of the ideas may be repeated or 
clarified in parts of different sentences. 
     However, a perfect paragraph has a  topic sentence  (the main idea of 
the paragraph), supporting sentences and a summary or transition sentence.  
Insofar as possible, the perfect paraphrase highlights these points.

DIRECTIONS:    Paraphrase the following paragraphs by stating each idea in 
a separate sentence. 

     "Natural languages follow various rules and it is reasonably clear
that humans inherit an innate cognitive capacity to learn these rules.
As a result of normal maturation, this capacity of language  acquisition
reaches a stage of 'readiness' before  the age of two,  and continues on
through  the childhood years until puberty.  The actual nature of this
universal readiness for language is still unknown.  Some scientists think 
that humans are preprogrammed with the basic rules of language, but others 
believe that humans are innately prepared to learn these rules."

(1) It is likely that the capacity to learn language rules is innate. 
(2) Readiness to learn language depends upon maturation. 
(3) The period of language readiness is from age 2 to about 14. 
(4) No one knows for sure what the nature of this readiness is. 
(5) It could be that language rules are instinctive. 
(6) Or it could be that humans are predisposed to learn a language. 

     1.  "Verbal communication begins as a one-word utterance that 
seems to serve as a complete sentence.  That is to say, one word is 
sufficient to express the child's idea.  Indeed, most parents can  readily 
translate a baby's one-word utterance into an adult sentence."

     2.  "In language development,  we see a progression from nothing 
at birth to one-word utterances at one year, to actual grammatical 
sentences at three years.  It is not clear why children change toward more 
and more complex grammatical structures  nor do we know  how the child 
'knows' what changes to make.  What is clear is that no special training 
is needed to enable a child increasingly to approximate adult language."
     3.  "There are some 'language universals'  such  as  the  distinction 
between nouns and verbs.   Even if these universals are innate,  the child 
must learn the specific way they appear in the particular language that 
the child is acquiring.  For example, some languages put adjectives after 
the noun while others put adjectives before the noun.   One theory is that 
every normal child has an 
innate grammar  that maps onto the sentences the child hears.  
Paraphrasing Exercise 5:  Paragraphs - B 
     Background.   The most critical paraphrasing skill in college 
is usually described as "putting the main idea into your own words."   The 
very best  evidence that you really understand some material is 
if you can identify the important parts of the material and summarize them 
in a few original sentences.  You may use some of the same 
words, if they are especially appropriate, but your summary should 
not be a direct quote. 
     An especially valuable skill is  successive paraphrasing of a  
paragraph (or other large unit).   By paraphrasing your paraphrase,  
you focus in on the core of the main idea.   Once you pack a lot of 
knowledge into a short summary, you can later unpack it whenever the 
topic comes up.
DIRECTIONS:  First, summarize each paragraph in one or two sentences. 
                    Then, summarize your summary.
     Example: "What do people gain from language development?  Verbal 
communication offers many advantages: greater ability  to describe one's  
experiences, greater ability for abstract thought, greater ability to 
express complex ideas to others.   Combined with memory, verbal 
communication provides the basis for the accumulation of knowledge.  
In sum, our ability to cope with large amounts of information is 
dependent on our possession of verbal language system."

     Language development enables a person to handle a lot of information 
efficiently.  This includes describing experiences, expressing ideas, and 
even thinking. 
           Language helps organize knowledge.

     1.  "Human language is dependent on a single structure  in the brain; 
if this structure is destroyed through injury or stroke, 
language is lost.  During early childhood, brain processes develop 
very much in parallel with language acquisition.   Accordingly, 
most scientists believe that language results from biological 
maturation as well as environmental influences."

     2.  "It is clear that a child must  learn to speak.   This apparently 
happens through experimentation.  All normal infants 
innately produce many sounds such as crying, cooing, and gurgling.  
As the child gets accustomedto sound-making, babbling becomes a 
frequent form of practice.   The child at an early age produces 
all the sounds in all the languages in the world, some of which 
may be lost because they are not  in the language  the child will 
learn.  Increasingly, the child imitates sounds that are heard 
during normal speech of older children and adults."

     3.  "Of course, intelligible speech is more than making sounds,  and 
the child must somehow learn the communication code of his or 
her society.  Some scientists contend that language is acquired in 
the same way that any other behavior is learned:  Specific utterances  by 
the child are rewarded or not according to how closely they fit 
with adult rules.  Others contend that the rules of language are much 
to complex to be learned piece-meal in this fashion and that the 
human infant is innately equipped for language.