I. Continuity of issues, tasks (all life stages)

developing trust

establishing autonomy

fashioning expanded sense of self

acquiring competence

II. Is adolescence a stormy time?

early adolescence as a "subphase"

few clashes between parents, young people over basic values

III. Adolescent identity

Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of lifespan "psycho-social" model

Childhood and Society; Identity and Adolescence

emphasized identity formation process

importance of identity crisis

importance of others: recognition & confirmation

James Marcia (1980) extended Erikson's work

interview study identified two factors:

has person had identity crisis?

commitment (adoption of a sexual orientation, values,

vocational direction)

model describes 4 identity statuses (NOT stages):

foreclosure, diffusion, moratorium, achievement

IV. Factors aiding identity formation

cognitive development, (Piaget’s "formal operations" construct)

able to reflect on self

can see a range of alternatives

sees self in past, present, future; sees self in multiple roles

V. Factors hampering identity formation

rapidly changing body

emerging sex drives

de-identification with caregivers -- sees human weaknesses

VI. Adolescent egocentrism

self-absorption, self-consciousness (primping)

mentally is on-stage, a "star": imaginary audience (peaks 14-15)

adoles. egocentrism parallels preschooler's centration

VII. Emotional development

self-regulation of emotion important theme

experimentation with management of emotion

music, art appreciation may intensify

reclusiveness not unusual, privacy needs

believes self to be unique

Back to Human Growth and Development Handouts Page

Revised 2/12/03 by jka.