Class, I am going to begin this section with a CHECKLIST for you in preparation for EXAM 2. Please make sure you can do the following:
____Diagram glycolysis pathway and write out net yield
____Diagram conversion of pyruvate to ACOA and write out net yield
____Diagram TCA cycle and write out net yield
____Diagram ETC and write out 5 steps
____Write out the lactate formation story: explain steady state & strenuous exercise conditions
____Tally the total ATP produced from one glucose molecule (we often do this just as a class quiz)
____Answer all questions on Interactive Quiz Two
Describe what metabolism is?
What is the difference between anabolism and catabolism?
What are the three energy systems that supply ATP? Which is the most immediate of these systems? (Phosphagen)
The bonds holding the phosphate are referred to as high energy because they have a lot of potential energy. What is the name of the process when a phosphate is cleaved or removed from the ATP molecule (i.e. the splitting of ATP is called what?). What enzyme catalyzes this process?
What enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of creatine phosphate?
What are enzymes? (i.e., biological catalysts)? The process enzymes help break the bonds of a product into smaller products is an example of anabolism or catabolism? Are enzymes affected by heat? Are enzymes affected by acidosis?
What scientist introduced the physiological property known as the "Induced Fit" role of Enzymes? (Daniel Koshland)
What are coenzymes? Coenzymes are non-protein vitamin molecules. What major role do they play in the metabolism? (hint: transporters of protons and electrons)
Give two examples of coenzymes in metabolism.
What is the preferred substrate of the body? Why? (Glucose, because it is so readily available and easy to break apart by the body).
What is the molecular structure of glucose? When metabolized, what is the TOTAL ATP yield of a glucose molecule? (is it 30, 32, 34 or 36 ATP?)
Where in the cell is glycolysis taking place? (sarcoplasm OR mitochondria)
What is a hydrogen atom made of? (hint: a proton and an electron)
Can you explain oxidation and reduction?
The coenzyme carriers NAD+ and FAD function as the 'taxicabs of metabolism' transporting what? (H+ and e-)
Know all TEN steps of glycolysis. On your exam you will be asked to diagram EACH step of glycolysis just as we did in class! How many net ATP are produced in glycolysis. What are the two options for pyruvate to proceed?
1. To mitochondrial matrix for oxidation
2. To be reduced to lactate
Be able to write out the lactate formation story. Discuss steady state conditions and stenuous exercise conditions.
How many pyruvate are produced from one glucose molecule?
Be able to draw and label the mitochondrion structure.
Class please learn the 5 Steps of the ETC and Be able to draw the ETC.
Who is the scientist who first explained the reactions of the ETC? (Dr. Peter Mitchell)
What is the COMMON intermediate in metabolism. (acetyl-coenzyme A, ACoA)
Class for Exam: Be able to diagram all 4 stages of metabolism and write out NET yield (glycolysis, conversion of pyruvate to ACOA, TCA and ETC (write out 5 steps of ETC and draw it out too).
What is the TOTAL ATP production from one glucose? We often do this as a class quiz, too. CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR WORK