Origins of Private-Sector CRM: Key Events, State-by-State

State Year Person/Firm/Comments
Alaska ca. 1973–1974 The Arctic Company surveyed the Alaska Pipeline in the early 1970s.
Arizona 1974 In October, Lyle Stone founds Archaeological Research Services (ARS)
Arizona 1977 Rick Effland, Shirley Powell, and Margerie Green establish Archaeological Consulting Services, Ltd. (in Tempe).
Arizona 1981 In October, David Phillips establishes a branch office in Tucson for New World Research (then based in Pollock, La.). A few weeks later, William Doelle and Linda Mayro establish Desert Archaeology.
California 1962 Roger Desautels establishes Scientific Resource Surveys (SRS) in Costa Mesa (?). First big job is survey at Amchitka Island nuclear test site.
California 1965 Roberta Greenwood conducts her first fully funded salvage project,completing a transition from volunteer-based efforts.
Delaware 1977 MAAR Associates, Inc. founded
Georgia 1976 Pat Garrow establishes a CRM program at Soil Systems, Inc. (SSI).
Georgia late 1970s Dean Wood establishes CRM program at Southeastern Wildlife Services in Athens; program becomes Southeastern Archaeological Services.
Hawaii 1971 Francis Ching establishes Archaeological Research Center Hawaii (ARCH) to do contract archaeology.
Idaho 1977 Loralea Hudson, George Gauzza, Jr., and Gary Ayers incorporate as Cultural Resource Consultants, Inc.
Iowa ca. 1971 Mike Weichman (sp?) may have been the first to incorporate as a private CRM firm, but soon moved away.
Iowa 1973 Environmental Research Center established in Iowa City.
Iowa "early 1970s" David Stanley establishes Bear Creek Archaeology, an ongoing CRM firm.
Kentucky 1974 Ohio Valley Archaeological Research Services Associates (OVARA) does the first private-sector CRM in the state. Ca. 1977, OVARA became Archaeological Services of Kentucky (ASK).
Louisiana late 1970s Prentice Thomas and Jan Campbell establish New World Research in New Orleans, later moving the firm to Pollock in central Louisiana.
Maryland ca. 1967 Glenn Little founds Contract Archaeology, Inc.
Michigan ca. 1973 Earl Prahl of Commonwealth Associates, Inc. (for-profit A&E firm) hires archaeologists for electric utilities.
New Jersey 1960s Ed Rutch founds Historic Conservation and Interpretation, Inc.
New Jersey 1981 John Hotopp founds cultural resource program at Louis Berger and Associates, an engineering company.
North Carolina 1971 Contract Archaeology, Inc. excavates the North Carolina Arsenal site for the N.C. Dept. of Transportation.
Oklahoma 1973 Annetta Cheek conducts a survey for the Tulsa District, COE. In the same year, she and her husband Charles then establish Archaeological Research Associates, Inc. as a non-profit firm.
Pennsyl- vania 1972 National Heritage Corporation of West Chester (founded in 1968) hires its first archaeologist, Bill Macdonald. The company's second archaeologist was Alex H. Townsend (1975); the third was Dan Roberts (1976).
South Carolina ca. 1974- 1976 Leslie Drucker and Ron Anthony establish Carolina Archaeological Services (CAS).
Utah 1976 Richard Hauck founds Archaeological Environmental Research Corporation (AERC) in Bountiful. About the same time or slightly after, Clay Cook, Diana Anderson, and one or two others found Utah Archaeological Research Corporation (UTARC).
Utah 1977 Lloyd Pearson founds K. K. Pelli in Moab.

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