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Metabolic Adaptations

What does RER stand for? How is it determined (ratio: VCO2/VO2)? What are the theoretical endpoints of the RER?

What is VO2 max? What are the criteria to know it has been achieved—can you list them all? What is the average improvement seen with VO2max from training?

How do we describe plateau in VO2? How long should a VO2 max protocol be?

What is VO2 peak? What is the difference in VO2max and VO2 peak?

Absolute (L O2/min) and relative (ml O2/kg/min) are two ways of expressing VO2? Which is better for comparison of individuals and why?

Usually, what type of exercise mode will yield the highest VO2max values? (Answer: Treadmill, because it is weight bearing exercise)

QUESTION ON 'FAT BURNING': If a FIT person wished to optimize ‘Fat Burning’ and has only 30 minutes to do the actual aerobic portion of the workout (warm-up and cool-down are separate), how would you recommend they exercise? Answer = COMFORTABLE but CHALLENGING pace. Remember the two “C” words (COMFORTABLE but CHALLENGING). Recommend that the person train at a Comfortable but Challenging pace they can sustain to burn more calories! In essence, to BURN more FAT a person should attempt to BURN more calories.

One more time: To burn more fat, a person needs to BURN MORE CALORIES!
What is a better way to say “Fat Burning” Workout? (ANSWER: 'Total Calorie’ burning workout)

What is O2 deficit?
What is EPOC and name at least 5 factors that contribute to it?
Class, CLICK HERE for a LINK that explains O2 deficit and EPOC.

In your own words explain what Redox Potential means? (Hint: involves ratio of NAD+ to NADH+H+)
(Class, if not covered during this section we will cover it in the next lecture series and next exam)
To read more on Redox Potential Click Here:

Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise
With aerobic exercise, what is the range usually seen with VO2max improvement?

With aerobic training do the slow-twitch fibers actually show some hypertrophy (how much)?

Of the Type IIa and Type IIb/x fibers, which would be used more in aerobic exercise?
A key adaptation of aerobic training is capillary supply. How much of an increase may be seen? If the capillaries increase is in number, how does this affect O2, CO2, nutrients and waste products?

What does myoglobin do? What fiber, Type I or Type II is high in myoglobin? How much may myoglobin increase with aerobic training?

Mitochondria function is proposed to improve with aerobic training? Discuss the factors contributing to this (i.e., what happens to the size and number of mitochondrion with aerobic training?).

How much does research show that oxidative enzymes may increase due to aerobic training? Will moderate exercise also increase the oxidative enzymes or does it have to be high-intensity exercise? Are the enzymes capable of increasing even when there is a plateau in VO2?
Can aerobically trained muscle store more or less glycogen? What about fat? Where is the fat stored?

Aerobically trained muscle can oxidize fatty acids better. How much is this increased ability (what %)?

If you are able to utilize fat more efficiently, in the long run how will this effect glycogen depletion?
Metabolic Adaptations to Anaerobic Exercise

Adaptations of phosphagen energy system. With very short burst training what adaptations do we see to the phosphagen system?

The glycolytic training
is optimized with high-intensity short bout exercise up to 1.5 minutes. 30-second training bouts (perhaps in an interval training format) have been shown to increase what?

Explain how with glycolytic training, there is an increase in buffering capacity. What are the names of some buffers? What are they doing?

The pH scale in a sense, tells you the concentration of what is in a solution? If the pH goes below 7 is the concentration more or less acidic?

So, is lactate really causing the acidosis or is it something else? What would this be? (Hint: H+ build up)? From where?

What enzyme may be easily inhibited in glycolysis due to low pH? Hint, from our lecture on metabolism, what is one of the main RATE-LIMITING enzymes of glycolysis?

CLASS: IF NOT COVERED IN THIS SECTION, THIS WILL BE ON A FUTURE EXAM! Fatigue Brief Essay (Please know!): In class, we broke down the sites of Peripheral Fatigue into 3 MAJOR areas (one at neuromuscular junction and two in the muscle. Explain them! Points to discuss include how are the protons affecting calcium binding to troponin; how do the protons affect ATPase; what happens at the neuromuscular junction?). Class, Click Here for a link that further explains Peripheral Fatigue. Make sure you know this.

What depletes first, CP or ATP? Why? See below for answer.

(CP deplets first: Remember, CP is replenished only by ATP. However, ATP is replenished by the phosphagen energy system, glycolysis, and mitochondrial respiration)

Cardiovascular Physiology

What are some of the basic functions of the CV system?

Be able to trace blood flow through the systemic and pulmonary circuits.

The right side of the heart is associated with the pulmonary or systemic circuit.
The left side of the heart is associated with the pulmonary or systemic circuit?

What valves are the atrial-ventricular (AV)?
What valves are referred to as semilunar?

What is the cardiac cycle?
Describe in PRECISE detail the cardiac cycle? See below if you need assistance.

Self-test: Put this blood flow tracing in correct order starting with venules: Scroll Down to check your answers:

______ Tricuspid valve
______ Pulmonary veins
______ Left ventricle
______ Lungs
______ Mitral valve
______ Venules
______ Pulmonary semilunar valve
______ Pulmonary arteries
______ Veins
______ Right atrium
______ Right Ventricle
______ Capillaries
______ Aortic semilunar valve
______ Arteries
______ Aorta
______ Inferior vena cava or superior vena cava
______ Left atrium
______ Arterioles

Trace very clearly the cardiac conduction system from the SA node, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, and purkinje fibers. Is the SA node in the right or left atrium? What is the ability of the heart to generate it’s own electrical signal called? (Pacemaker or autorhythmic)

In actuality, when the ventricles pump, they must squeeze 1) from bottom up or 2) from top down?

Describe the components of a ECG tracing including the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave. When is atrial depolarization and repolarization? When is ventricular depolarization and repolarization? Can you draw and explain this electrical event?

What is normal sinus rhythm?
What is sinus bradycardia?
What is sinus tachycardia?

The nervous system that plays a big role in influencing slower resisting heart rates is 1) the parasympathetic system or 2) the sympathetic system?

What would a normal stroke volume be in ml? Is it ml per beat, per min or per hour?
What is end-diastolic volume (EDV)?
What is end-systolic volume (ESV)?

Mathematically how can you describe SV, EDV and ESV?

Heart rate is always looked at in beats per ______?

What is ejection fraction? An average ejection fraction would be what percent at rest? How would you classify an ejection fraction of 70%? How would you classify an ejection fraction of 50%?

What does cardiac output represent? Is it liters per beat, per min or per hour?

Mathematically, if you have two of the following you can always calculate the third (EDV, ESV, SV). Make sure you can do this. For instance, if EDV is 110 ml and SV is 55 ml, what is ESV. Or if ESV is 60 and SV is 65, what is EDV?

Make sure you can calculate ejection fraction. What would be considered an average ejection fraction?

Make sure you can calculate cardiac output in ml/min as well as L/min.

Here are some practice calculations. Make sure you can do all of these!

EDV = 110, SV = 70: What is ESV and What is Ejection fraction?

ESV = 80, SV = 80: What is EDV and What is Ejection fraction?

EDV =120, SV = 70: What is ESV and What is Ejection fraction?

If HR = 180 b/min and SV = 100 ml/b what is Q?

If HR =195 b/min and SV = 115 ml/b what is Q?

Ventrical Volumes Solving practice:
Samantha Smith (wt.=60 kg) has an EDV of 110 ml/beat and ESV of 42 ml/beat. She is an avid runner who is 152 centimeters tall. What is her SV? What is her ejection fraction and classification?

Terance Trodder (ht.= 180 cm; wt.=73 kg) has an EDV of 115 ml/beat and a SV of 71 ml/beat. What is his ESV? What is his Ejection fraction and classification?

Cardiac Output Solving practice: Remember, you must SHOW your work for credit!
Steve Speed (ht=183 cm; wt.=70 kg) runs 7 miles daily and has an ESV of 44 ml/beat. His exercise SV is 110 ml/beat and heart rate during intense exercise is 175 beats/min. What is his Q (cardiac output; ml/min and L/min)?

Therese Triathlon trains 6 days a week. She weighs 58 kg and is 155 cm tall. Her EDV is 120 ml/beat and her ESV is 46 ml/beat. What is her SV? She has a resting HR of 50 beats/min. What is her resting Q (cardiac output; ml/min and L/min)?

What are some unique characteristics and metabolic needs of red blood cells? What energy system do they use?
(Class, if not covered during this section we will cover it in the next lecture series and next exam: Class, check your answer below.)

What is exercise hyperemia? Explain what causes it.

Cardiorespiratory Response to Exercise

What is the anticipatory response of HR to exercise. What causes this? (Class, it is the sympathetic nervous system causing this)

How does heart rate relate to VO2 during progressive increasing intensity exercise? How does heart rate respond to progressively increasing intensities of aerobic exercise? Does it plateau at maximal exertion?

In class we discussed 4 factors that effect SV. What are they? Discuss/explain these factors! Please be thorough

SV plateaus in untrained individuals at about what range of VO2max?

Can stroke volume of athletes be dramatically higher than untrained individuals?

How is blood redirected due to exercise? (Class, this is through a process of 'Shunting' blood away from other organs to the working muscle)

Explain what happens to systolic and diastolic blood pressures in an exercise setting. (Class, systeolic blood pressure rises due to the contractions of the heart where as diastolic blood pressure stays the same in healthy individuals--this is due to a widening of the arteries refered to as vascular compliance)

What is arterial-(mixed) venous O2 difference (a-VO2 difference)? What does it represent? Be able to calculate a resting and exercise a-vO2. For instance:
20 ml O2 in 100 ml arterial blood to the cell
15 ml O2 in 100 ml venous blood leaving cell
What is aV02 difference? (answer = 5 ml O2)

20 ml O2 in 100 ml arterial blood to the cell
5 ml O2 in 100 ml venous blood leaving cell
What is aV02 difference? (answer = 15 ml O2); note how a-vO2, the Extraction of oxygen is higher during exercise

At a submaximal intensity, doing the same amount of work, which participant will have a LOWER exercise heart rate: Trained or Untrained

What is the Fick equation? (Note, this is also on the interactive quiz for this section)

Answer: Unique Characteristics and Metabolic Needs of Red Blood Cells: 1) No nucleus, 2) No mitochondria, 3) Do not reproduce
4) few metabolic needs: mostly to maintain cell shape and perserve concentrations, 5) Energy from glycolysis
6) Normal life span is 4 months

Answers to Blood Flow Quiz of Pulmonary and Systemic Circuit
5. Tricuspid valve
10. Pulmonary veins
13. Left ventricle
9. Lungs
12. Mitral valve
1. Venules
7. Pulmonary semilunar valve
8. Pulmonary arteries
2. Veins
4. Right atrium
6. Right Ventricle
18. Capillaries
14. Aortic semilunar valve
16. Arteries
15. Aorta
3. Inferior vena cava or superior vena cava
11. Left atrium
17. Arterioles