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Intro Lecture, Homestatic Control, & Neuromuscular Function and Adaptations

Introductory Lecture
The origins of Exercise Physiology can be traced to what two areas. Numerous key figures played a role in the development of exercise physiology. What role did the following persons play in the origins of exercise physiology?
Herodicus, Hippocrates, Galen, Archibald Hill, Lawrence Henderson, David B. Dill, Per-Olof Astand, Bengt Saltin, Jonas Bergstrom, Albert Behnke, Thomas Cureton, J.C. Dalton;
CLASS, scroll to bottom of page and try the quiz with the pioneers.

Another name for anatomy, the study of structure is?
Physiology is involved with the study of what?

Explain the difference between an acute response and a chronic adaptation. Can you give some examples of each?

In exercise physiology, we look at changes from the resting level to all levels of exercise intensity.

What are the 5 components of Physical Fitness? Be able to name and give a definition of each.

What are some environmental factors that would affect performance? MORE a question for you to think about and
not for exam purposes.

What are some bodily factors that would affect performance? MORE a question for you to think about and
not for exam purposes.

Ergometer is two words that mean?

Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of a cycle ergometer and treadmill for the purposes of exercise testing.
Not for an exam test item, but for you to focus on what goes on in a testing situation in exercise physiology.

What is a simple definition of a risk factor?

Explain longitudinal research design and give an example?


Homeostasis
What is the difference in homeostasis and steady state?
Name some physiological variables that can maintain Steady State during exercise at a constant intensity?
Explain the three general regulating mechansisms of homeostasis?
Explain what negative feedback means. Give an example of a negative feedback system in the body.


Muscle Physiology
Skeletal muscle chemical composition is what % water? protein? and other substances.
Some of the ‘other’ substances that make up muscle include?
What is different about the nucleus in muscles versus other cells in the body?
Terms to know with skeletal muscle physiology: epimysium, perimysium, fasciculi, periosteum, sarcolemma, sarcoplasma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasma, actin, myosin, Z line (disk), I band, A band, H zone, A band, troponin, tropomyosin, myofibrils, myofillaments, polarized, transverse tubules, acetylcholine, neuromuscular junction, hypertrophy, hyperplasia.

Class, make sure you can draw and label the gross structure of skeletal muscle.
Make sure you can draw and label the sarcomere structure.
How would you describe the sarcomere?

Is a muscle cell the same as a muscle fiber?
What is another name for cytoplasm of a MUSCLE cell?
Describe the purpose of the sarcolemma. Why is it referred to as a polarized plasma membrane? How many layers are there on the plasma membrane? Describe what polarized means?

Draw and label the sarcomere and answer the following.
During a shortening (concentric) muscle action, what happens to the H zone, A band, I band, and Z lines?

During a lengthening (eccentric) muscle action, what happens to the the H zone, A band, I band, and Z lines?

What is the name of the pioneer in exercise physiology who introduced the name eXcentric, which was later changed to eccentric muscle action?

Explain the sliding filament theory. Begin your discussion with the arrival of the nerve impulse to the axon terminal ending. Complete your discussion with return of calcium to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

What causes the myosin heads to disassociate from the acting binding sites (after the myosin has completed a power stroke).

Explain what a motor unit is? What is the all-or-none phenomenon of motor units?

What is the motor end plate? How is the motor end plate related to the sarcolemma? How are the transverse tubules (t-tubules) related to the sarcolemma?

What are the different types of muscle fibers? What type of muscle fiber type is recruited for endurance exercise? What type of muscle fiber type is recruited for short-burst explosive work? What fiber type has oxidative and glycolytic characteristics?



Nerve Physiology
Terms to know: dendrites, axon, axon hillock, myelin sheath, swan cells, nodes of ranvier, saltatory conduction, depolarization, hyperpolarization, graded potentials, repolarization, active transport

Approximately how fast is a nerve action potential?
Review what does polarized mean?

Describe what resting membrane potential and the main electrolytes inside and outside the cell.

Disuss what it means for a nerve cell to reach THRESHOLD.

Discuss the steps and processes of a nerve cell at resting membrane potential receiving a stimulus and then propagating an action potential, finally returning to RMP. Can you draw out these steps?

Motor units are recruited by the SIZE principle (Type I, Type IIa, then Type IIb/x). This is really controled by the FORCE demands placed on the muscle. Can you explain motor unit recruitment in a concise paragraph?
CLICK HERE FOR a picture of this phenomenon.


What is the all-or-none phenomenon (of motor units) mean?


What is Calcium’s double role in muscular contraction?


Summary of Muscle Contraction? Class, although I have summarized this for you, try to understand it because if you just memorize you can easily make some errors!
SEE PRACTICE QUIZ BELOW!
1. Motor nerve’s impulse action potential arrives at axon terminal of the neuromuscular junction
2. Calcium ions rush in and react with synaptic vesicles
3.Synaptic vesicles fuse with cell membrane
4.Acetylcholine released via process of exocytosis
5.Acetylcholine binds with receptor sites on motor end plate causing depolarization of motor end plate and sarcolemma
6. Impulse travels T- tubules & sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
7. Calcium ions released
8. Calcium binds with troponin
9. Shift of tropomyosin, make sites available for myosin
10. With ATP present, ATPase splits ATP to ADP + Pi + Energy
11. Myosin (S1 units) combine with actin
12. Sliding action of actin over myosin (Power Stroke)
13. Impulse stops to muscle: calcium ions rapidly return to SR
14. Tropomyosin returns over active sites on actin and contraction ceases

Class, for your OWN personal review from your Biology Class, make sure you are familiar with the functional organization of the nervous system. Just for review purposes of your basic understanding of the nervous system.

What does the muscle spindle respond to within the muscle.
What does the golgi tendon organ (which is located in the tendon) respond to.

Muscular Adaptations to Resistance Training

Go over in detail the hypertrophic factors of resistance training. This is one of the culminating summaries of this section. What increases, what does not change, and what is debatable. Know all of these factors!

The early gains in resistance training are predominantly what? There are 3 components to neural drive—What are they?


PRACTICE QUIZ OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION! PLEASE NUMBER THE SEQUENCE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION IN CORRECT ORDER

____Calcium ions released

____Calcium ions rush in and react with synaptic vesicles

____Myosin (S1 units) combine with actin

____With ATP present, ATPase splits ATP to ADP + Pi + Energy

____Tropomyosin returns over active sites on actin and contraction ceases

____Impulse travels T- tubules & sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

____Motor nerve’s impulse action potential arrives at axon terminal of the neuromuscular junction

____Shift of tropomyosin, make sites available for myosin

____Acetylcholine released via process of exocytosis

____Calcium binds with troponin

____Sliding action of actin over myosin (Power Stroke)

____Acetylcholine binds with receptor sites on motor end plate causing depolarization of motor end plate and sarcolemma

____Impulse stops to muscle: calcium ions rapidly return to SR

____Synaptic vesicles fuse with cell membrane

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS


Pioneers of Exercise Physiology Quiz Questions:

1. Which pioneer excelled in Sports Medicine and even treated some of the Gladiators?

2. What scientist founded the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory?

3. Who is recognized as the 'father of preventive medicine'?

4. This pioneer had great impact on the physical fitness movement in the U.S.

5. What scientist developed the biopsy needed?

6. This scientist was known for his work in energy metabolism and was a Nobel prize winner.

7. This medical doctor was truly a visionary of health and fitness understandings accepted today.

8. This doctor was the mentor to Hippocrates.

9. The first and only director of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory.

10. Researcher most associated with body composition investigations.

11. Scandinavian researcher who is recognized for work in muscle metabolism.

12. Which researcher who did much work on endurance capacity of runners?
All answers below





Answers: 1=Galen, 2=Lawrence Henderson, 3=Hippocrates, 4=Thomas K. Cureton, 5=Jona Bergstrom, 6=Archibald Hill, 7=J.C. Dalton, 8=Herodicus, 9=David B.Dill, 10=Albert Behnke, 11=Bengt Saltin, 12=Per-Olof Astrand

End of Scholarly Questions