|Respiratory Physiology and Endocrinology
Respiratory Physiology, Work and Endocrinology Function:
REMEMBER: IN RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY LOADING AND UNLOADING ALWAYS REFERS TO THE BLOOD!
Know the following:
Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
Alveoli exchange of gases between the lungs and blood which is EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Remember: With Oxygen, 98% combines with hemoglobin in red blood cell and 2% is in plasma; With carbon dioxide transport in the blood, 7% is dissolved in the blood, 23% is bound to carbominohemoglobin (bound to globin protein in hemoglobin), and 70% is transported as bicarbonate ion)
Gas exchange at tissues which is INTERNAL RESPIRATION
What is very different about the bronchioles in the bronchiole tree when compared to the primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus? (Instead of surrounding cartilage the bronchioles are surrounded by smooth muscle)
Approximately how many alveoli are there in a healthy adult? (100million, 200million, 300million........answer 300million)
What does Boyle's Law state? (Presure is ______ to Volume)...Answer = Inverse
Explain the mechanics of Inspiration and Expiration (which we call Pulmonary Ventilation). What is happening to the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles? What law explains pulmonary ventilation? Please review this process at this link
Understanding pressure gradients
Can you calculate a pressure gradient if given two partial pressures? Lets try.
Calculate the following Pressure gradient: Atmosphere PO2 = 159 mmHg; Alveolar PO2 = 104 mmHg: Pressure gradient =_____ (did you get 55 mmHg: 159 mmHg - 105 mmHg =55 mmHg )
Explain/Discuss the following special topics (NOTE: if covered earlier in a previous unit/exam we will NOT have on this exam): Oxygen deficit, EPOC (Refer to other links on our exercise physiology page for more information on Oxygen deficit, EPOC and Redox Potential)
Oxygen deficit and EPOC Link
What is the concentration of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in atmospheric air? Make sure you know
What law says partial pressures are proportional to their concentration? (Dalton's Law-see below)
Calculate the partial pressure of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide at standard atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg. For help go to this link: Partial Pressure Calculation
Now calculate if the atmospheric pressure was 700 mmHg.
Class Remember: Daltons TWO law states: Partial pressure is proportional to its concentration AND the sum of the partial pressures is the TOTAL pressure.
Gases prefer to go from a 1) higher pressure to lower pressure or, 2) lower pressure to higher pressure? (Answer is Higher to lower pressure until the gas attains EQUILIBRIUM).
Where does external respiration take place? Where does internal respiration take place? Which involves the pulmonary circuit and which involves the systemic circuit? (Remember, external respiration is in the lungs and internal respiration is in the tissues)
How much O2 (in percent) combines with hemoglobin? Where does the remainder of the oxygen dissolve?
How many hemoglobin molecules on one red blood cell?
Each hemoglobin can carry how many molecules of oxygen? When a hemoglobin is fully loaded it is called what? (Saturated)
If the PO2 is low, will the hemoglobin have less or more oxygen saturation?
If the PO2 is high, will the hemoglobin have less or more oxygen saturation?
Answers: Class, these two question relate to one of Dalton's laws (the partial pressure is proportional to its concentration). Think of the partial pressure as a weight. In the first question, if the PO2 is low, then hemoglobin will have LESS oxygen saturation. In the second quesstion, if PO2 is high, then hemoglobin will have MORE oxygen saturation.
Please interpret the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve information. If the PO2 is 40 mmHG and the percent saturation of hemoglobin is 75%, how much oxygen has been consumed? (ANSWER. 25%: 100%-75%=25%). Where is the oxygen going? (hint: to the tissues to be used for life processes).
If the PO2 is 20 mmHG and the percent saturation of blood is 35%, how much oxygen has been consumed?
Remember: Focus on percent saturation: if percent saturation is 35%, that means 65% has been consumed: 100%-35%=65%
At the muscle tissue, blood capillary PO2 is 104mmHG and the PO2 in the muscle tissue is 40mmHg. Since O2 is being consumed in the tissues, the red blood cells in the tissue capillaries do what: Unload or Load oxygen? Thus, equilibrium is reached at what PO2? ANSWER: since you are at the muscle tissue we know that oxygen will UNLOAD from the blood to go to the working muscles tissues. So, equilibrium will be reached at 40mmHG.
Muscle tissue PCO2 is 45mmHG and the PCO2 in the blood (mostly red blood cell) is 40mmHG. Since CO2 is being produced in the tissue, the red blood cells in the tissue capillaries do what: Unload or Load CO2? Thus equilibrium is reached at what PCO2? ANSWER: At the muscle tissue the body LOADS up CO2 onto the blood (to get rid of this waste product). Therefore, equilibrium is reached for 45mmHG.
Important Review again: In the pulmonary circuit, the red blood cells are loading (O2 or CO2) and unloading (O2 or CO2)? In the systemic circuit, the red blood cells are loading (O2 or CO2) and unloading (O2 or CO2). Refer to your partial pressures in the body CHART.
Once again, what is the name of the respiration process (Internal OR External Respirationj) in the pulmonary circuit? What is the name of the respiration process (Internal or External) in the systemic circuit?
There are FOUR factors we discussed that affect O2 unloading into the tissue capillaries? (See Bohr effect link below) Make sure you know these very specifically? For instance, is it an increase or decrease in pH that influences O2 unloading. Make sure for each factor you know whether it is an increase or decrease that influences O2 unloading.
What is the name of this SHIFT (named after scientist) of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve? When affected by any of these factors, what happens to the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve (which way does it shift: right or left)? This shift of the curve does what to oxygen dissociation (help load or help unload oxygen)? (is this called the Bohr effect.....YES?). Read more about the Bohr effect at this link.
There are THREE factors we discussed how CO2 is transported in the blood. What are they? Use this link to check your answer.
Practice completing the Pulmonary and Systemic circuit PARTIAL PRESSURES diagram (CLICK HERE), making sure you can label the PO2 and PCO2 as blood travels through the pulmonary and systemic circuit.
What is the Haldane effect? (Haldane's experiments showed that oxygen loading HELPS carbon dioxide unloading from the blood)
CLASS, WE OFTEN DISCUSS OXYGEN DEFICIT AND EPOC IN THIS SECTION. If we do, please explain what Oxygen Deficit is and Explain what EPOC means and list 6 factors that contribute to it. Click HERE for a link that will help explain both.
Neuroendocrine Adaptations to exercise
What does endocrine actually mean?
Make sure you review the main endocrine organs for yourself.
Hormones alter cellular function. The hormone to receptor interaction is called what? (Hormone-receptor complex)
Is it true that each cell has 2,000 to 10,000 receptors? YES
Hormones operate in a negative feedback system. What does this mean? (This means the response of the body is OPPOSITE the stimulus.)
Be able to explain and/or draw this IMPARIED negative feedback system with a DIABETIC example as done in class!
Insulin sensitivity means: enhanced ability to get glucose into the cell via insulin
Insulin resistance means: decreased ability to get glucose into the cell via insulin.
What is the name of the protein that translocates glucose into the muscle cell?
What does growth hormone do to fat metabolism and the lipase enzymes. (Growth hormone increases fat metabolism by increasing the amount of lipase enzymes involved in fat metabolism).
Review the Steps of how ADH works to return the body to normal hydration. CLICK HERE
Class Review very closely the hormones involved with plasma glucose. How much can these hormones increase glucose in short burst exercise?
Hormone regulation of fat metabolism is focused on the hormone reaction with the HSL (hormone sensitive lipase) enzyme. What are the four hormones (that increase fatty acid oxidxation) we discussed.
Please review the role of the following hormones involved in exercise: growth hormone, ADH, epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, cortisol.
In lecture we discussed that cortisol will somtimes INHIBIT the synthesis of protein. Under what condition will this occur: when the body is HIGH in GLUCOSE or LOW in GLUCOSE (i.e, carbohydrate)? (ANSWER: When the body is LOW in glucose)
So with exercise over a period of time (with trained and untrained persons), does insulin elevate or decrease?..................................................................................it decreases!
Why does insulin responds the way it does to exercise ? (Hint, do contracting muscles independently help glucose uptake into the muscle cells without the need for insulin...yes they do? Also, how does epinephrine and norepinephrine effect insulin during endurance exercise...do they impair the release of insulin from the pancreas, thus lowering levels...that is correct.)
CLASS: The Calculatations on Lab #4, The Calculations LAB are NOT on Exam 4