Basic Terms to Know with this section: glycogen, glucose, metabolism, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, metabolic pathway, glycolysis, oxidation, reduction, redox, bioenergetics, creatine kinase, ATPase, substrate
Describe what metabolism is?
What is the difference between anabolism and catabolism?
What are the three energy systems that supply ATP? Which is the most immediate of these systems?
The bonds holding the phosphate are referred to as high energy because they have a lot of potential energy. What is the name of the process when a phosphate is cleaved or removed from the ATP molecule (i.e. the splitting of ATP is called what?). What enzyme catalyzes this process?
In your own words, how does the Dart Gun example relate to the synthesizing and cleaving of the ATP molecule? Class, I do NOT plan to test you on this but it may be very useful for you to be able to explain this concept to others.
What high energy molecule (of the phosphagen system) provides the phosphate (when it is cleaved) for the resynthesis of ATP?
What are some different ways can you write creatine phosphate?
What enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of creatine phosphate?
What energy system do ATP and PCr represent?
What are enzymes? Describe how enzymes work and what they do? Do the enzymes actually change in a reaction. The process enzymes help break the bonds of a product into smaller products is an example of anabolism or catabolism? Are enzymes affected by heat? Are enzymes affected by acidosis?
What scientist introduced the physiological property known as the "Induced Fit" role of Enzymes?
Please review (several ways) how enzymes are affected?
What are coenzymes? What major role do they play in the transfer of energy?
Give two examples of major co-enzymes in metabolism.
What is oxidative phosphorylation mean? (Note, just another name for the electron transport system that we will discuss)
What is a substrate?
What is the preferred substrate of the body? Why?
What is the molecular structure of glucose? When metabolized, what is the total ATP yield of a glucose molecule?
Glycolysis begins with glycogen or glucose and ends with what? Where in the cell is glycolysis taking place?
ATP counting time. If glycogen is the initial fuel, how many TOTAL ATP are produced? If glucose is the initial fuel, how many TOTAL ATP are produced?
What is a hydrogen atom made of?
Be able to explain what oxidation and reduction are?
Can you explain how the coenzyme carriers NAD+ and FAD function?
Know all TEN steps of glycolysis. On your exam you will be asked to diagram EACH step of metabolism that we learn in class! Now that you know it, why do you think it is called glycolysis. How many net ATP is produced in glycolysis. What are the two options for pyruvate to proceed.
What is the fate of lactate? Explain how lactate is formed. Be able to write a short essay entitled 'the lactate formation story.
(Note lactate produced during strenuous exercise in muscle moves to the liver and is converted to glucose).
Which energy system can produce ATP aerobically and anaerobically (the answer is glycolytic: glycolysis is an anaerobic energy system producing ATP and then pyruvate (from glycolysis) may go through the TCA and ETC which are aerobic?
In your own words, can you write a short essay explaining how pyruvate turns into lactate?
I am presenting carbohydrate metabolism in 4 stages. What are they? (Glycolysis, conversion of pyruvate to ACoA, TCA and ETC)
How many pyruvate are produced from one glucose molecule?
Be able to draw and label the mitochondrion structure.
Several of the protein complexes in the ETC are called what? (Cytochromes)
Who is the scentist who first explained the reactions of the ETC? (Dr. Peter Mitchell)
What is the COMMON intermediate in metabolism.
Class for Exam: Be able to diagram all 4 stages of metabolism (write out ETC in a complete essay). (Be able to tally the total ATP production). For the Exam you will diagram each stage of metabolism as presented and quizzed in class, and write out the NET yield at each stage.
What is the TOTAL (i.e., totally through glycolysis, TCA and ETC) ATP production if the molecule starts with glucose? Be able to show this breakdown. CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR WORK